We have seen that the
main theme of Gita is Karma. When it is done perfectly it leads to Karma
Yoga and Dnyana which eventually takes the enslaved Atma to His original
abode, the God. In this chapter we get a clearer definition and
understanding of Dnyana. Generally, Dnyana, to a lay person, means
knowledge. But it is not so. The word knowledge comes from the verb
"to know", which means to understand. Our knowledge of
anything in this or beyond this world comes from the contact and
association of our sense organs with the external objects. This
knowledge is stored in the deep portion of the Antahkaran (inner most
part of subtle body). The term Antahkaran-chatushtaya means four (chatushtaya)
fold Antahkaran which includes mind, chitta, intellect and ego. All
these together make Antahkaran. The knowledge earned by the senses is
received by the mind, grasped by the intellect and associated with the
ego. It rests in Antahkaran so that with the death of the physical body
it does not die. It remains with Atma and is available to us in next
A child sees a small
bird on the tree. He does not know what the bird is called. He asks his
father and hears that the bird is a sparrow. His senses of sight and
hearing know this. The information is received by the mind. It may be
there, in the "Antahkaran", from the child's past life but is
gathering dust. Or it may not be there. But now it remains there and the
next time this child sees another bird of the same kind, he at once says,
"sparrow". This is child's knowledge.
In this way, anything
that our five senses of knowledge are capable of understanding is
categorised as knowledge. That is how we get the knowledge about the
world, the stars, planets, galaxies. Most of this may have been obtained
by others. We read about it and come to know. Reading is also a means to
get knowledge. You read in the newspaper that there was an earthquake in
some distant part of the world. The news item says, several hundred
people did, many buildings coallapsed, many people became homeless. You
have not seen nor heard the explosion yourself. Yet, when somebody talks
about it, you say, "Yes I know it". This is knowledge.
But what about "That",
which exists but is not within the grasp of any of the senses. "That"
exists everywhere. It is closer to you than you can imagine. It is by
your side just now. But you cannot see it. It makes a sound which you
cannot hear. It touches you yet you do not feel. It has a smell which
your nostrils are incapable of picking. If it does have a taste, you
don't get it, even if it sits on your tongue. Now you will ask a
question, "What is it? What are you talking about?" I do not
know any such thing. Never heard about it."
You say so because you
have no knowledge about "That". Not only you, but nobody has
any direct knowledge about it. So "That" remains as "That".
One of the great statements about God, that we read in Vedas is, "Thou
art That". So, this something which exists, but is beyond the
knowledge of senses, is God. To know God means to become one with Him.
You means Atma, God means Parmatma (super Atma). For Atma to know
Parmatma is to merge into Him. This, knowing and understanding of God is
However, in the world,
as we go about doing our work, we use the word "knowledge" for
the word "Dnyana". In this chapter this difference between
"knowledge" and "Dnyana" is brought out. "Dnyana"
is to understand and experience God as against knowing Him. You cannot
know Him. Knowledge is to know about His creation and everything that is
in it. This knowledge is called Vidnyana. So now we have two words,
"Dnyana" is to experience God and "Vidnyana" is to
know his world.
What is His world and
how was it created? In the beginning when there was nothing, "That"
existed. We cannot know what "That" is, so we call it energy,
or God. When "That" wanted to take form, part of "That"
(energy) got transformed into substances which could be felt or seen.
Another part of That became "unseen" subtle something which
could feel and understand. In a most revealing statement in verse no. 4
of this chapter, Krishna says,
"My Prakruti (part
of energy) is divided into eight parts. They are "Akash" (space),
"Vayu" (wind), "Teja" (light and heat), "Aapa"
(water) and "Pruthvi" (earth) which are gross or semi subtle
elements. The other three are subtle elements called, Mana (mind),
Buddhi(intellect) and Ahankar (ego)".
- Out of the first five elements, the first to come to life was
Akash, better understood by the word sky. But they are not the same.
When we talk of sky, we see the bluish expanse above. We say there are
clouds in the sky. By that we mean, these clouds, which we can see, are
floating in an open space above. This open space which is anywhere and
everywhere is Akash, e.g. There is Akash in the room where you sit. If
you turn the fingers of your hand inwards to form a fist and keep it
lose, then the space inside is Akash. The space within the body is Akash.
In your room you keep a
huge pot which is hollow inside. The hollow portion is empty space. That
is Akash. You fill the pot with water. Where is the Akash gone? It is
not gone. It has water in it. You empty the pot by pouring out the water
and you find Akash in there. You keep ten different pots of different
shapes and sizes but all hollow inside. Now there is Akash in the room
and also in the pots. You label the 10 pots, A to J and you will say
"A" has Akash, "B" has Akash and so on. You will
also say that the room has Akash. Now you break all the ten pots, throw
the pieces out. You notice that the Akash in the room and that in the
pots is the same. The differentiation was illusionary. This Akash is
- When there was nothing else, the first element was Akash. Then
part of the great energy (God) started blowing. It occupied this Akash
completely, so that where there was any empty vacant space or Akash,
there was Vayu. Akash could not be without Vayu and Vayu could not be
without its parent Akash. When this Vayu started blowing in the sky, it
made sound which, in Sanskrit, is called Shabda (word). Akash was and is
needed for the spreading of sound. You have a fifteen feet long piece of
solid wood. You blow or speak at one end. Your words or the sound cannot
go to the other end through the wood because it is not hollow; there is
no Akash in it. Now you dig a whole, through and through, from one end
to another in that block of wood. Then you speak at one end. You can
hear the sound at the other because there is Akash in between which
carries sound. Vayu, on the other hand, helps this carriage and makes us
feel. If Vayu blows hard, our skin feels the touch and we say,
"Wind is blowing". So now we have two qualities which form the
subjects of two sense organs. Shabda or sound is the subject of sense of
hearing, and Touch is the sense of touch or skin.
- When this Vayu started blowing at a very high speed, it
generated heat, which is called Teja. It also emitted light. It then was
cosolidated into a huge source called the Sun. Thus part of the original
energy which had become Vayu, was converted into Teja. It could be felt
as well as seen. We feel heat and we see light. Hence the quality of
Teja came to be known as "Rupa" (form) which became the
subject of sense of sight.
- Heat was immense in the beginning when it was generated by the
Vayu. It began to cool and became liquid in form. That was water. Thus
the fourth big element came into being. Water could be tasted. Its
quality is taste and it is the subject of the sense of taste (tongue).
- Slowly, slowly, this Aapa began to cool, in space. It was
helped by Vayu and part of it changed into solid state. Thus the fifth
great element, the Prithvi, came to be formed. It gave out smell. Hence
the quality of Prithvi is smell, and it became the subject of the sense
of smell (nostrils).
So we see that when God
formed his eight fold Prakruti, the first five elements occupied the
Universe. Akash is greater than Vayu in quantum because it contains the
latter. Vayu is greater than Teja, which is a part of the former. Aapa,
being a part of Teja, is smaller than the latter and Prakruti is still
smaller than the Aapa. That is the reason, three fourths of the space on
earth is filled with water.
All beings are made out
of these five elements. Our body has solid parts viz.; skull, skeleton,
bones which are the parts of Prithvi. Blood saliva sweat etc. are in
liquid form, as a part of Aapa. Body contains heat, a part of Teja. It
cannot live without Vayu which is spread throughout the interior parts
of the body. Akash is the space in which this Vayu moves and helps
circulation of liquids. All five are essential for body to live. All are
in some proportion which could vary from body to body. If any one is
missing or is gone, body is dead. These
five elements form the gross physical body.
- It is a quality of God's remaining Prakruti. It is subtle and has
tremendous speed. It is linked with the physical body through the sense
organs which are also subtle and which respond to the gross objects
through their respective subjects like sound, sight, smell, taste and
touch. It has the power to create ideas and its motto is to please the
senses, acting under the instructions of Vasana which is a collection of
desires of many lives.
- It is close to mind and works with it. It has the power to tame the
mind's action and take decisions. It is also closer to the energy
- This part of the Prakruti is responsible for creating attachment to
Karma. This is necessary so that when the physical body dies, the subtle
body of these three elements can go with the Atma to come back and stay
in some other body. This eight fold Prakruti is called "Apara"
or lower in stature
He has another part of
Him called "Para" or higher Prakruti, as mentioned in verse
no. 5. This is called "Jiva" or Atma.
Difference exists in
individual's Apara Prakruti. Bodys and mental disposition, quality of
intellect and degree of ego varies from person to person. But Atma in
all of them remains the same. It is this Atma which is the superior part
of God and is "mini" God Himself. He supplies the energy
necessary for the physical body to live its predetermined period. This
determination is based upon Karmas of past lives. Atma in all is same.
Hence all beings, humans, animals, other creatures, insects, birds,
reptiles etc., are equal because the Atma or energy in all of them is
not different. The difference exists in Apara Prakruti which is the
cause of delusion and ignorance.
Both these two
Prakrutis are responsible for creation of this Universe and every thing
that inhabits in it. But He
the God or "That" in the statement "Thou art That",
is the real creator and finally He is the destroyer, Himself. There is
nothing superior to or greater than Him. He has got all the bodies in
the Universe, the celestial, terrestrial and all other living, non
living entities are, as if woven like beads in a string. He is the
string and these beads are His creation.
We can have knowledge
of this creation through the five senses because each sense organ has
its own subject-quality which corresponds to each of the five great
elements, forming the physical part of anything. The degree of this
knowledge varies from person to person depending upon the level of
understanding and intelligence in each person according to the
difference in mind, intellect and ego.
The eight fold Prakruti
has created the Universe. The human knowledge is limited to the understanding of
anything coming in the orbit of this Apara Prakruti. This knowledge is
gained by the Atma through the three subtle elements of the individual's
Prakrukti. So both Para and Apara give us what we call Vidnyan or
Yet we are totally in
the dark about the creator because "That" is not something
which the senses can comprehend. "That" always remains beyond
the mind and the intellect. It is only through constant study and
practising given laws that a person advances to next stages called
Muni-Yogi and Dnyani. When a person (Atma) can disengage himself from
his senses, mind and intellect and understand that He is different from
them, He is poised to cross the limits of knowledge. He is on his way
to, not know, but experience His own status and then remain in that
state, contemplating on his own father the Parmatma. This person has
acquired, not knowledge, but Dnyana. Now he knows both Vidnyana and
Dnyana. He who has this both, has nothing else to know. Millions and
millions, practically all humans spend their lives in getting to know
things accessible by the senses. But only one in millions desires and
strives to have both. It is that one person only who can, after many
lives become a Dnyani, knowing both, the Prakruti (creation) and the
He the God, the
creator, is present in each and every part of His creation, because the
entire creation is just a part
of Him. Consider the five great elements. He is the part, unpolluted
natural smell in "Pithvi"(all solids). He is the taste in
"Aapa", all liquids. He his the light and heat in
"Teja", all forms. He is the touch sensation in
"Vayu", all objects. He is the "sound" in Akash, all
objects. He is the light in the Sun and the moon. He is the original
sound (AUM) in Vedas. He is the austerity in sages. He is the life in
He says to Arjuna in
verse no. 10 and 11, "Arjuna, I am the original seed of all beings.
You must know and understand this. I am the intelligence in intellect
and I am the spirit of spirited persons. I am the strength of the strong
and I am the desire, minus its lust and craving, in all beings."
When Krishna says, He is the original seed in all beings, He
means that when there was nothing of creation in the beginning, He begot
the five great elements out of His own subtle existence. These five form
all living and non living bodies in the Universe. He became the three
subtle elements which form part of all living beings. Hence everything
owes its existence to Him. Everything comes from Him. He is the origin.
We have seen before the
three gunas viz., Sattwa, Raja, Tama. These three gunas also form part
of his Prakruti as they have their origin in Ahankar (ego). The outward
manifestation al all three is in the word "I". The dominance
of any one of these three in this "I" is seen when we say our
words. You are an artist. You have drawn a picture and it is kept in an
exhibition among others. Somebody asks, "who has drawn this?"
You say "I have". When the intention and purpose behind the
"I" in your words is just to convey your ownership without any
pride or superiority complex, this "I" becomes Satwic. When
people are discussing and asking each other "who has drawn
this?" but they do not come to you and you go to them and say
"I have", with a feeling of letting them know that you are the
artist, this "I" becomes Rajas. Because the "Raja"
guna in you is stimulated and it makes you move and go to them. When
people are criticising the picture, for its good or bad qualities and
you go to them and say, "I have drawn this, what you want to say,
say to me in my face", the "I" in you becomes
"Tamas". It has a tinge of pride and anger to it.
In this way these three
gunas reign everywhere and objects are branded Sattwic, Raja, or Tamas
according to the guna dominant at that time. These gunas also are
indirectly born out of God, yet He is not in them. On the contrary they
all reside in Him. The world gets deluded by objects of His creation
because of these three gunas. God is different from all three of them.
We do not understand this due to ignorance. The play of these three
gunas is called God's is called "Maya" or delusion. It
encompasses the world and it is a near impossibility to overcome it
In dealing with other
people, we react to their words, differently because of this delusion.
Upset desires, misunderstanding, wrong ideas, give to our words a
particular colour and meaning. When we hear something, we react in a
particular way. If somebody hurls words at you in anger, he is speaking
with Tamas ego. If your disposition at time is under the influence of
"Tama" guna, your reaction will also be Tamas. If, on the
other hand you have a Sattwic frame of mind, you will stay clam. Yet you
will keep on thinking, "why this man should be angry with me?"
The Maya, formed by the three gunas, makes you think that way. When you
cross this Maya, the words of the other person will have no effect on
you. No thought pertaining to him or what he said to you will shape up
in your mind. This is true of speech as well as every action you take in
response to the knowledge brought into your Antahkaray by your senses.
Because they all work under the influence of these three gunas.
Your reaction to food,
drink, air outside, colour of your room, decor depends upon these Gunas.
You come home, upset because you had a fight with your boss. Your wife
happily comes to you and says, "O! you are early. Good, let us go
to a movie. You are lost in your upset thoughts. You ignore her. She
must be something. Why are you early?" She
if you say, leave me alone", you shout. This is as a result of
dominance of Tama guna.
I had some argument with the boss and I got
headache. Let me lie down for a while. We will go out
after an hour and have dinner outside." These words indicate
But all the same, you
and your wife and your boss are influenced by the Gunas which constitute
His Maya. Krishna says, "My Maya is extremely difficult to fathom.
You can overcome it only if I want it. They, who see Me in everything
and have nothing else but Me in their minds all the time, can cross it.
All of us are in His
Maya and so are away from Him, though He is so close to us. Even Yogis
and Dnyanis do not escape it. It is this Maya which causes movement of
any kind. The world is in motion because of it and we live under its
influence. The first step to be able to get out of its influence is to
worship Him, in any manner you like. You can worship an idol or a
picture frame if you like. You may pray Him as many times as you wish.
You may read scriptures and think about God so as to keep your mind busy
with him. People worship God in their own way. Yet there are some who do
not believe in the existence of God and His Maya. They are so greatly
and highly influenced by this Maya that they take it for real and not
delusion. They do not have any concept of God. So they do not offer
prayers, do not worship and do not go to a Mandir or a Mosque or a
Church or to any other accepted God's house. They ridicule others who do
so. These people are foolish. They are the lowest among mankind. They
become atheists and take refuge in the devilish atmosphere.
"But those who
worship me, who believes in My existence are of four broad types",
"Krishna says in verse no. 16 of this chapter.
types of devitees
All these are pious by
nature. Yet their approach to God is different and they are called
accordingly, as under.
: the distressed
: the inquisitive
: the material benefit seeker, and
: the one with self realisation
- The greater portion of mankind falls in the category (a). You may
believe in making your own destiny. You rely upon yourself and become a
very successful person, according to the laws of Karma. You do not want
God to help you, though you believe in His existence. You have no time
to pray or worship, as all your time is usefully spent in doing right
Karmas in the right way. God likes you, because you are following the
rules he laid down. Everything is going good.
One day your daughter,
so loving and dear to you becomes ill. You get the services of the best
doctor. She is losing health. Pathological tests reveal she has blood
cancer. You get a shock. Everything changes for you. Your work goes on
mechanically. You are destressed. Now you turn to God, as you are a
pious man, and you pray Him to save her.
calamities. problems which baffle us, make us turn to God. It happens to
everybody. There may be exceptions. But this is what the majority
approach to God is.
- Some people are curious to know God. It is not necessary that they
want to get enlightened. They are happy enjoying material life. They are
well to do people. Everything is going good for them. They do not ask
anything from God. Some of them find it below their dignity to approach
God for help. Yet they are curious. They go to pilgrimage partly for
fun, partly to see what is done there. They desire to get more Knowledge
- These people are commercial minded. They believe in God and reason,
"if God exists and is superior to all, why not get his help in
fulfilling my desires." Such a person says to God, "you give
me success in my venture, I will donate my first month's income to any
of your charities". A mother prays, "Mata, or God let my
daughter get a good husband, I will feed so many poor people".
Someone else says, "God, if my son gets admission to medical
college," I will bring him with me for your darshana and pay homage
Thousands of people,
many thousands desires. These people approach God with, certain promise
to be fulfilled when the desire prayed for, is gratified.
- These are but few. We have seen that a common man become a Yogi when
his attachment to Karma is gone. Then he becomes a Dnyani, when He sees
God in everything. Such a person is way above all the three categories
mentioned above. He is not a "Aarta" because he is not in
destress. He is beyond happiness and sorrow as he is one with God. Ge is
not a Jidnyasu because there is no curiosity in him. He is not an
Artharthi because there is nothing that he wants from God. He is happy
Out of all these four
pious persons, God likes the Dnyani because he only can love God as God
loves all beings. He worships God because he loves Him. His mind is all
the time fixed on God. Both He and God love each other.
after becoming a Dnyani
There is a school of
thought which has raised a very interesting question in the past. Is the
"Dnyani" state final? Does a Dnyani who has experienced God,
need to worship Him? Worshipping means devotion. Is it necessary for a
Dnyani to be a devotee? Some people think it is not. They opine that to
be a Dnyani is an end itself in self realisation. But is it so?
Let us try to answer
this question in the light of the verse no. 17, which says,
"Of these (the
four categories of devotees), the one who is a Dnyani and engaged in
pure one pointed devotion is the best. I am very dear to him and he is
dear to Me."
Dnyani is a person who
has achieved self realization. He has crossed the boundaries of
limitation put on the self by mind and intellect. His mind is away from
senses, and with the intellect it is completely attached to the self.
His "Dehabuddhi" (consciousness of body, both physical and
subtle) is replaced by "Atmabuddhi" (consciousness of self).
The "Apara" Prakruti of eight fold nature does not affect the
Atma. Yet the Dnyani sees the difference between him and God. He loves
God and God loves him. It means there still exists a duality. He is
separate from God. He is still under the influence of God's Maya, which
can only be crossed with His Grace.
When he excels in his
devotion to such an extent, that he cannot bear his separation from God,
his worship is so intense that he does not want to do anything else, he
advances further. One day, by God's grace, he becomes one with God. The
Atma merges into Parmatma.
All the four categories
of devotees are generous in nature and magnanimous in heart. But the
Dnyani is, as if, God's own Atma. This is how he is regarded by God.
Because he is the only one who is attached to Him totally, all the time
and takes refuge in Him. Living in this situation, he is sure to attain
God, the most perfect and highest goal. But this does not happen so
easily. Even Dnyani has to wait for many lives. After a devotion of many
many lives after he becomes a Dnyani, this the best of all devotees,
surrenders totally and completely to God. Then he realises that
everything is God. Instead of saying God is in everything he says that
God is everything. Such a person is very very rare to find.
for Yogis and Dnyanis
It should be noted that
in the pursuit of self realization, many people become Karmayogis. They
are born again and again as they pursue their efforts to become Dnyanis.
There could be many Yogis but very few Dnyanis. These latter also are
born again and again in the pursuit of their goal to cross the river of
Maya and reach Him. Both the Yogis and Dnyanis acquire supernatural
powers. They can work miracles. Yet they are still under the influence
of His Maya. They are at a high position but they could still fall down
if His Maya cheats them. When Yogis or Dnyanis start exhibiting their
powers, perform miracles to impress upon people their own personality,
their advancement is halted. They generally do a lot of good for
humanity. But the slightest touch of ego or, wavering away from Love of
God could lead them astray. They have to be born many times then, to
come to the place from which they fell down. That is the reason. a
Dnyani also is born many many times before he becomes one with God.
Examples of such Yogis and Dnyanis are ample in the world.
After many many lives,
a Dnyani realizes and worships God with this realization that everything
is God. He does not need to perform miracles, he does not want crowd to
follow him. He does not have disciples. He is totally lost in love of
God, which makes him see God everywhere. When he reaches the state, he
automatically sees himself as God, though he never ever says or
proclaims it. Because to whom will he say so. To him nothing else exists
except God. Will he talk to God in another person that "I am
God"? It is absurd. Can you imagine God talking to God that he is
God. A Dnyani has to reach that stage and he reaches it by his
a common devotee desires?
As far as other
categories of devotees are concerned, their superlative thinking is
muddled by various kinds of desires. They worship demigods. They follow
the specific rules of worship applicable to there demigods. They
do receive favours from them. Their difficulties get removed,
problems are solved. They often get their desires fulfilled. Hence such
pious devotees who cannot think of God being everywhere and who do not
wish to get Moksha, will always worship some or the other demigods. They
pray, "God, in my next life, bless me with better things". In
ignorance they think that the next life would be human life and this
demigod can give it with some goodies and better amenities.
Yet, in reality, the
demigods receive their power from God, the inexplicable energy which
occupies everything. God never interferes in the relation between the
demigod and the devotee. There are devotees who follow certain accepted
paths such as meditation, worshipping, prayers etc. They look down upon
people who worship demigods. They even try to influence their thoughts
by telling them not to do pooja of such demigods. They do so with
genuine intentions, believing that idol worshipping is a waste of time.
But it is not so. Such people must refrain from trying to change the
faith of these ignorant devotees.
Krishna has said in
verses nos. 21 and 22, "Whosoever holds faith in a demigod and
worships according to the applicable rules, finds favour with Me. I
stabilise his faith in that demigod. He worships his God with that
faith, strengthened by Me and receives benefits and gains for his
desires according to My disposition but through the demigod."
The reason for this is,
it is nearly impossible to change somebody's faith and the one who tries
to change it is also ignorant. He or she is not anywhere near God. Also,
a devotee worshipping a demigod is, in fact worshipping God Himself.
Through the demigod, he is drawn more and more near to God, day by day,
year after year, life after life. His faith becomes stronger and
stronger. He develops love for the demigod and begins to see his God
everywhere. He unknowingly, walks on the right path.
I would request all
those intelligent devotees, therefore, not to ridicule others involved
in idol worship or worship of some demigods, following some strange
practices not understood by you. This will be against God's own wish.
This may cause harm to your Sadhana because you will earn disfavour from
God you worship.
Devotees of demigods do
get rewards for their devotion and faith. But these rewards are
temporary. They do not last. It is their faith and devotion which finds
pleasure with the demigod who blesses them at that time and either
fulfils that desire or removes, obstacles from their path in material
world. These devotees, reach the world of their demigods, whereas
devotees of Him go to Him.
God is not somebody
with form. He is not a human being with a physical and subtle bodies. He
is unmanifested, therefore, without any form. It is the ignorance about
Him and His creation that people look upon Him as somebody sitting high
up in heaven and deciding on the fate of individuals. We are told
"Do not behave in this bad manner, God will punish you, or do this
work, worship and pray God in Mandir or Mosque or Church or
at home in this manner and God will reward you. Many of us
believe this, and imagine that there is somebody called God who sits
above. He sees everything. He punishes us for bad deeds and rewards us
for good ones. Therefore we must do such and such thing to please Him.
These people do not comprehend His unmanifested existence.
The main reason for
this ignorance is His Maya. It surrounds us from all sides. Therefore,
ignorant people cannot understand His unborn inexhaustible nature.
Ignorant means not those who have a very low degree of intelligence. In
the question of understanding and realizing God, everybody is ignorant
except the Dnyani. So unless one becomes a Dnyani it is not possible to
realize Him. Till that time we are all ignorant. We may be experts in
Vidnyana, the knowledge of His creation but ignorant in Dnyana, the
experience of God Himself.
It is important to know
that He comes very near to us in pursuit of realization and experience,
only when faith triumphs and intellect bows out. Intellect must be used
to subdue the mind to break its link with the senses. Therefore the
intellect, with mind on its tail, must dissolve in self, giving place to
unflinching faith, super patience and love.
God has knowledge of
all his creations, the beings that were before, that are living now and
those who will be there in future, but none understands Him. As He is in
everything as Atma, and as all beings are governed by His laws of Karma,
He knows where an individual will go after this life. He knows how many
and which forms any particular Jiva or Atma had. He also knows how the
Atma will behave in future lives because He can see the chain of Vasana.
He knows how these Vasanas will put forth desires and what will happen
then. A being can't do anything when an Atma takes birth in any form
other than human. Because in all other forms, the being cannot do any
Karma, but only pays for its previous human Karma. A being may have many
such non human lives, depending upon the Karma. It is only in the human
life, that God can do something for that being. The Atma in human body
retains past "Sanskaras" (Vasanas and habits), as well as the
level of intelligence reached before. God creates for him an atmosphere
conducive for his further development. It is for the human being then to
make the most of that life.
Awake, therefore, my
friends, arise and work.
All beings are greatly
confused while they live, because of happiness and sorrow arising out of
desire and the latent anger in it. When people do lot of good
Karma, the reward helps them to wash away their sins. These people can
get out of the delusion of happiness and sorrow and with a strong
determination try to reach God.
is good karma?
Good Karma does not
necessarily mean doing good for family and friends, because you have
some attachment to them. You may donate fifty thousand rupees in charity
or feed a thousand poor people with the intention of doing some good
Karma. This intention creates an attachment and your deed, though good,
does not become a "Punya" Karma. But you see a frail old poor
man walking on the street and suffering from the severe cold wind
blowing at that time. You are wearing a woollen jacket which keeps you
warm. If you spontaneously, walk over to that unknown man, take off your
jacket and put it around him so that he stops suffering you have done a
good Karma. When you leave that jacket to him for his own use and return
to your path without even thinking of having done something good, your
entire action becomes a Punya Karma. Punya means service done to third
party without attachment and without expecting good returns.
Intelligent people who
try for liberation from old age and death take refuge in God in
devotional service. These people, in effect, try to liberate themselves
from bondage and thus are keen to attain Moksha. They, in due course,
realize Brahma, the whole spiritual science and the laws of Karma.
Finally in the last verse, no. 30, Krishna declares, "I am made up
of "Adhibhuta", "Adhidaiva" and
"Adhiyagnya". He who realizes Me thus, by thinking about Me,
always remembers Me at the time of death.