What is knowledge?

            We have seen that the main theme of Gita is Karma. When it is done perfectly it leads to Karma Yoga and Dnyana which eventually takes the enslaved Atma to His original abode, the God. In this chapter we get a clearer definition and understanding of Dnyana. Generally, Dnyana, to a lay person, means knowledge. But it is not so. The word knowledge comes from the verb "to know", which means to understand. Our knowledge of anything in this or beyond this world comes from the contact and association of our sense organs with the external objects. This knowledge is stored in the deep portion of the Antahkaran (inner most part of subtle body). The term Antahkaran-chatushtaya means four (chatushtaya) fold Antahkaran which includes mind, chitta, intellect and ego. All these together make Antahkaran. The knowledge earned by the senses is received by the mind, grasped by the intellect and associated with the ego. It rests in Antahkaran so that with the death of the physical body it does not die. It remains with Atma and is available to us in next human life.

            A child sees a small bird on the tree. He does not know what the bird is called. He asks his father and hears that the bird is a sparrow. His senses of sight and hearing know this. The information is received by the mind. It may be there, in the "Antahkaran", from the child's past life but is gathering dust. Or it may not be there. But now it remains there and the next time this child sees another bird of the same kind, he at once says, "sparrow". This is child's knowledge.

            In this way, anything that our five senses of knowledge are capable of understanding is categorised as knowledge. That is how we get the knowledge about the world, the stars, planets, galaxies. Most of this may have been obtained by others. We read about it and come to know. Reading is also a means to get knowledge. You read in the newspaper that there was an earthquake in some distant part of the world. The news item says, several hundred people did, many buildings coallapsed, many people became homeless. You have not seen nor heard the explosion yourself. Yet, when somebody talks about it, you say, "Yes I know it". This is knowledge.

What is Dnyana?

            But what about "That", which exists but is not within the grasp of any of the senses. "That" exists everywhere. It is closer to you than you can imagine. It is by your side just now. But you cannot see it. It makes a sound which you cannot hear. It touches you yet you do not feel. It has a smell which your nostrils are incapable of picking. If it does have a taste, you don't get it, even if it sits on your tongue. Now you will ask a question, "What is it? What are you talking about?" I do not know any such thing. Never heard about it."

            You say so because you have no knowledge about "That". Not only you, but nobody has any direct knowledge about it. So "That" remains as "That". One of the great statements about God, that we read in Vedas is, "Thou art That". So, this something which exists, but is beyond the knowledge of senses, is God. To know God means to become one with Him. You means Atma, God means Parmatma (super Atma). For Atma to know Parmatma is to merge into Him. This, knowing and understanding of God is called Dnyana.

            However, in the world, as we go about doing our work, we use the word "knowledge" for the word "Dnyana". In this chapter this difference between "knowledge" and "Dnyana" is brought out. "Dnyana" is to understand and experience God as against knowing Him. You cannot know Him. Knowledge is to know about His creation and everything that is in it. This knowledge is called Vidnyana. So now we have two words, "Dnyana" is to experience God and "Vidnyana" is to know his world.

Greation of Universe

            What is His world and how was it created? In the beginning when there was nothing, "That" existed. We cannot know what "That" is, so we call it energy, or God. When "That" wanted to take form, part of "That" (energy) got transformed into substances which could be felt or seen. Another part of That became "unseen" subtle something which could feel and understand. In a most revealing statement in verse no. 4 of this chapter, Krishna says,

            "My Prakruti (part of energy) is divided into eight parts. They are "Akash" (space), "Vayu" (wind), "Teja" (light and heat), "Aapa" (water) and "Pruthvi" (earth) which are gross or semi subtle elements. The other three are subtle elements called, Mana (mind), Buddhi(intellect) and Ahankar (ego)".

Apara Prakruti

            Akash             - Out of the first five elements, the first to come to life was Akash, better understood by the word sky. But they are not the same. When we talk of sky, we see the bluish expanse above. We say there are clouds in the sky. By that we mean, these clouds, which we can see, are floating in an open space above. This open space which is anywhere and everywhere is Akash, e.g. There is Akash in the room where you sit. If you turn the fingers of your hand inwards to form a fist and keep it lose, then the space inside is Akash. The space within the body is Akash.

            In your room you keep a huge pot which is hollow inside. The hollow portion is empty space. That is Akash. You fill the pot with water. Where is the Akash gone? It is not gone. It has water in it. You empty the pot by pouring out the water and you find Akash in there. You keep ten different pots of different shapes and sizes but all hollow inside. Now there is Akash in the room and also in the pots. You label the 10 pots, A to J and you will say "A" has Akash, "B" has Akash and so on. You will also say that the room has Akash. Now you break all the ten pots, throw the pieces out. You notice that the Akash in the room and that in the pots is the same. The differentiation was illusionary. This Akash is everywhere.

            Vayu - When there was nothing else, the first element was Akash. Then part of the great energy (God) started blowing. It occupied this Akash completely, so that where there was any empty vacant space or Akash, there was Vayu. Akash could not be without Vayu and Vayu could not be without its parent Akash. When this Vayu started blowing in the sky, it made sound which, in Sanskrit, is called Shabda (word). Akash was and is needed for the spreading of sound. You have a fifteen feet long piece of solid wood. You blow or speak at one end. Your words or the sound cannot go to the other end through the wood because it is not hollow; there is no Akash in it. Now you dig a whole, through and through, from one end to another in that block of wood. Then you speak at one end. You can hear the sound at the other because there is Akash in between which carries sound. Vayu, on the other hand, helps this carriage and makes us feel. If Vayu blows hard, our skin feels the touch and we say, "Wind is blowing". So now we have two qualities which form the subjects of two sense organs. Shabda or sound is the subject of sense of hearing, and Touch is the sense of touch or skin.

            Teja - When this Vayu started blowing at a very high speed, it generated heat, which is called Teja. It also emitted light. It then was cosolidated into a huge source called the Sun. Thus part of the original energy which had become Vayu, was converted into Teja. It could be felt as well as seen. We feel heat and we see light. Hence the quality of Teja came to be known as "Rupa" (form) which became the subject of sense of sight.

            Aapa - Heat was immense in the beginning when it was generated by the Vayu. It began to cool and became liquid in form. That was water. Thus the fourth big element came into being. Water could be tasted. Its quality is taste and it is the subject of the sense of taste (tongue).

            Prithvi - Slowly, slowly, this Aapa began to cool, in space. It was helped by Vayu and part of it changed into solid state. Thus the fifth great element, the Prithvi, came to be formed. It gave out smell. Hence the quality of Prithvi is smell, and it became the subject of the sense of smell (nostrils).

            So we see that when God formed his eight fold Prakruti, the first five elements occupied the Universe. Akash is greater than Vayu in quantum because it contains the latter. Vayu is greater than Teja, which is a part of the former. Aapa, being a part of Teja, is smaller than the latter and Prakruti is still smaller than the Aapa. That is the reason, three fourths of the space on earth is filled with water.

            All beings are made out of these five elements. Our body has solid parts viz.; skull, skeleton, bones which are the parts of Prithvi. Blood saliva sweat etc. are in liquid form, as a part of Aapa. Body contains heat, a part of Teja. It cannot live without Vayu which is spread throughout the interior parts of the body. Akash is the space in which this Vayu moves and helps circulation of liquids. All five are essential for body to live. All are in some proportion which could vary from body to body. If any one is missing or is gone, body is dead.  These five elements form the gross physical body.

The subtle Elements

            Mind - It is a quality of God's remaining Prakruti. It is subtle and has tremendous speed. It is linked with the physical body through the sense organs which are also subtle and which respond to the gross objects through their respective subjects like sound, sight, smell, taste and touch. It has the power to create ideas and its motto is to please the senses, acting under the instructions of Vasana which is a collection of desires of many lives.

            Buddhi - It is close to mind and works with it. It has the power to tame the mind's action and take decisions. It is also closer to the energy inside.

            Ego - This part of the Prakruti is responsible for creating attachment to Karma. This is necessary so that when the physical body dies, the subtle body of these three elements can go with the Atma to come back and stay in some other body. This eight fold Prakruti is called "Apara" or lower in stature

Para prakruti

            He has another part of Him called "Para" or higher Prakruti, as mentioned in verse no. 5. This is called "Jiva" or Atma.

            Difference exists in individual's Apara Prakruti. Bodys and mental disposition, quality of intellect and degree of ego varies from person to person. But Atma in all of them remains the same. It is this Atma which is the superior part of God and is "mini" God Himself. He supplies the energy necessary for the physical body to live its predetermined period. This determination is based upon Karmas of past lives. Atma in all is same. Hence all beings, humans, animals, other creatures, insects, birds, reptiles etc., are equal because the Atma or energy in all of them is not different. The difference exists in Apara Prakruti which is the cause of delusion and ignorance.

            Both these two Prakrutis are responsible for creation of this Universe and every thing that inhabits in it.  But He the God or "That" in the statement "Thou art That", is the real creator and finally He is the destroyer, Himself. There is nothing superior to or greater than Him. He has got all the bodies in the Universe, the celestial, terrestrial and all other living, non living entities are, as if woven like beads in a string. He is the string and these beads are His creation.

            We can have knowledge of this creation through the five senses because each sense organ has its own subject-quality which corresponds to each of the five great elements, forming the physical part of anything. The degree of this knowledge varies from person to person depending upon the level of understanding and intelligence in each person according to the difference in mind, intellect and ego.

            The eight fold Prakruti has created the Universe. The   human knowledge is limited to the understanding of anything coming in the orbit of this Apara Prakruti. This knowledge is gained by the Atma through the three subtle elements of the individual's Prakrukti. So both Para and Apara give us what we call Vidnyan or Knowledge.

            Yet we are totally in the dark about the creator because "That" is not something which the senses can comprehend. "That" always remains beyond the mind and the intellect. It is only through constant study and practising given laws that a person advances to next stages called Muni-Yogi and Dnyani. When a person (Atma) can disengage himself from his senses, mind and intellect and understand that He is different from them, He is poised to cross the limits of knowledge. He is on his way to, not know, but experience His own status and then remain in that state, contemplating on his own father the Parmatma. This person has acquired, not knowledge, but Dnyana. Now he knows both Vidnyana and Dnyana. He who has this both, has nothing else to know. Millions and millions, practically all humans spend their lives in getting to know things accessible by the senses. But only one in millions desires and strives to have both. It is that one person only who can, after many lives become a Dnyani, knowing both, the Prakruti (creation) and the "Purusha" (creator).

God's omnipresence

            He the God, the creator, is present in each and every part of His creation, because the entire creation is just a  part of Him. Consider the five great elements. He is the part, unpolluted natural smell in "Pithvi"(all solids). He is the taste in "Aapa", all liquids. He his the light and heat in "Teja", all forms. He is the touch sensation in "Vayu", all objects. He is the "sound" in Akash, all objects. He is the light in the Sun and the moon. He is the original sound (AUM) in Vedas. He is the austerity in sages. He is the life in all beings.

            He says to Arjuna in verse no. 10 and 11, "Arjuna, I am the original seed of all beings. You must know and understand this. I am the intelligence in intellect and I am the spirit of spirited persons. I am the strength of the strong and I am the desire, minus its lust and craving, in all beings." 

            When Krishna says, He is the original seed in all beings, He means that when there was nothing of creation in the beginning, He begot the five great elements out of His own subtle existence. These five form all living and non living bodies in the Universe. He became the three subtle elements which form part of all living beings. Hence everything owes its existence to Him. Everything comes from Him. He is the origin.

Gunas and ego

            We have seen before the three gunas viz., Sattwa, Raja, Tama. These three gunas also form part of his Prakruti as they have their origin in Ahankar (ego). The outward manifestation al all three is in the word "I". The dominance of any one of these three in this "I" is seen when we say our words. You are an artist. You have drawn a picture and it is kept in an exhibition among others. Somebody asks, "who has drawn this?" You say "I have". When the intention and purpose behind the "I" in your words is just to convey your ownership without any pride or superiority complex, this "I" becomes Satwic. When people are discussing and asking each other "who has drawn this?" but they do not come to you and you go to them and say "I have", with a feeling of letting them know that you are the artist, this "I" becomes Rajas. Because the "Raja" guna in you is stimulated and it makes you move and go to them. When people are criticising the picture, for its good or bad qualities and you go to them and say, "I have drawn this, what you want to say, say to me in my face", the "I" in you becomes "Tamas". It has a tinge of pride and anger to it.

            In this way these three gunas reign everywhere and objects are branded Sattwic, Raja, or Tamas according to the guna dominant at that time. These gunas also are indirectly born out of God, yet He is not in them. On the contrary they all reside in Him. The world gets deluded by objects of His creation because of these three gunas. God is different from all three of them. We do not understand this due to ignorance. The play of these three gunas is called God's is called "Maya" or delusion. It encompasses the world and it is a near impossibility to overcome it

            In dealing with other people, we react to their words, differently because of this delusion. Upset desires, misunderstanding, wrong ideas, give to our words a particular colour and meaning. When we hear something, we react in a particular way. If somebody hurls words at you in anger, he is speaking with Tamas ego. If your disposition at time is under the influence of "Tama" guna, your reaction will also be Tamas. If, on the other hand you have a Sattwic frame of mind, you will stay clam. Yet you will keep on thinking, "why this man should be angry with me?" The Maya, formed by the three gunas, makes you think that way. When you cross this Maya, the words of the other person will have no effect on you. No thought pertaining to him or what he said to you will shape up in your mind. This is true of speech as well as every action you take in response to the knowledge brought into your Antahkaray by your senses. Because they all work under the influence of these three gunas.

            Your reaction to food, drink, air outside, colour of your room, decor depends upon these Gunas. You come home, upset because you had a fight with your boss. Your wife happily comes to you and says, "O! you are early. Good, let us go to a movie. You are lost in your upset thoughts. You ignore her. She asks,

"What happened?"

"Nothing", you reply.

"There must be something. Why are you early?" She  persists.

"But if you say, leave me alone", you shout. This is as a result of  dominance of Tama guna.

"Nothing, I had some argument with the boss and I got  headache. Let me lie down for a while. We will go out  after an hour and have dinner outside." These words indicate Sattwa Guna.

Maya - Illusion

            But all the same, you and your wife and your boss are influenced by the Gunas which constitute His Maya. Krishna says, "My Maya is extremely difficult to fathom. You can overcome it only if I want it. They, who see Me in everything and have nothing else but Me in their minds all the time, can cross it.

            All of us are in His Maya and so are away from Him, though He is so close to us. Even Yogis and Dnyanis do not escape it. It is this Maya which causes movement of any kind. The world is in motion because of it and we live under its influence. The first step to be able to get out of its influence is to worship Him, in any manner you like. You can worship an idol or a picture frame if you like. You may pray Him as many times as you wish. You may read scriptures and think about God so as to keep your mind busy with him. People worship God in their own way. Yet there are some who do not believe in the existence of God and His Maya. They are so greatly and highly influenced by this Maya that they take it for real and not delusion. They do not have any concept of God. So they do not offer prayers, do not worship and do not go to a Mandir or a Mosque or a Church or to any other accepted God's house. They ridicule others who do so. These people are foolish. They are the lowest among mankind. They become atheists and take refuge in the devilish atmosphere.

            "But those who worship me, who believes in My existence are of four broad types", "Krishna says in verse no. 16 of this chapter.

Four types of devitees

            All these are pious by nature. Yet their approach to God is different and they are called accordingly, as under.

(a) Aarta                : the distressed

(b) Jidnyansu            : the inquisitive

(c) Artharthi            : the material benefit seeker, and

(d) Dnyani               : the one with self realisation

            Aarta - The greater portion of mankind falls in the category (a). You may believe in making your own destiny. You rely upon yourself and become a very successful person, according to the laws of Karma. You do not want God to help you, though you believe in His existence. You have no time to pray or worship, as all your time is usefully spent in doing right Karmas in the right way. God likes you, because you are following the rules he laid down. Everything is going good.

            One day your daughter, so loving and dear to you becomes ill. You get the services of the best doctor. She is losing health. Pathological tests reveal she has blood cancer. You get a shock. Everything changes for you. Your work goes on mechanically. You are destressed. Now you turn to God, as you are a pious man, and you pray Him to save her.

            Distress, difficulties, calamities. problems which baffle us, make us turn to God. It happens to everybody. There may be exceptions. But this is what the majority approach to God is.

            Jidnyasu - Some people are curious to know God. It is not necessary that they want to get enlightened. They are happy enjoying material life. They are well to do people. Everything is going good for them. They do not ask anything from God. Some of them find it below their dignity to approach God for help. Yet they are curious. They go to pilgrimage partly for fun, partly to see what is done there. They desire to get more Knowledge about God.

            Artharthi - These people are commercial minded. They believe in God and reason, "if God exists and is superior to all, why not get his help in fulfilling my desires." Such a person says to God, "you give me success in my venture, I will donate my first month's income to any of your charities". A mother prays, "Mata, or God let my daughter get a good husband, I will feed so many poor people". Someone else says, "God, if my son gets admission to medical college," I will bring him with me for your darshana and pay homage to you.

            Thousands of people, many thousands desires. These people approach God with, certain promise to be fulfilled when the desire prayed for, is gratified.

            Dnyani - These are but few. We have seen that a common man become a Yogi when his attachment to Karma is gone. Then he becomes a Dnyani, when He sees God in everything. Such a person is way above all the three categories mentioned above. He is not a "Aarta" because he is not in destress. He is beyond happiness and sorrow as he is one with God. Ge is not a Jidnyasu because there is no curiosity in him. He is not an Artharthi because there is nothing that he wants from God. He is happy with himself.

            Out of all these four pious persons, God likes the Dnyani because he only can love God as God loves all beings. He worships God because he loves Him. His mind is all the time fixed on God. Both He and God love each other.

Devotion after becoming a Dnyani

            There is a school of thought which has raised a very interesting question in the past. Is the "Dnyani" state final? Does a Dnyani who has experienced God, need to worship Him? Worshipping means devotion. Is it necessary for a Dnyani to be a devotee? Some people think it is not. They opine that to be a Dnyani is an end itself in self realisation. But is it so?

            Let us try to answer this question in the light of the verse no. 17, which says,

            "Of these (the four categories of devotees), the one who is a Dnyani and engaged in pure one pointed devotion is the best. I am very dear to him and he is dear to Me."

            Dnyani is a person who has achieved self realization. He has crossed the boundaries of limitation put on the self by mind and intellect. His mind is away from senses, and with the intellect it is completely attached to the self. His "Dehabuddhi" (consciousness of body, both physical and subtle) is replaced by "Atmabuddhi" (consciousness of self). The "Apara" Prakruti of eight fold nature does not affect the Atma. Yet the Dnyani sees the difference between him and God. He loves God and God loves him. It means there still exists a duality. He is separate from God. He is still under the influence of God's Maya, which can only be crossed with His Grace.

            When he excels in his devotion to such an extent, that he cannot bear his separation from God, his worship is so intense that he does not want to do anything else, he advances further. One day, by God's grace, he becomes one with God. The Atma merges into Parmatma.

            All the four categories of devotees are generous in nature and magnanimous in heart. But the Dnyani is, as if, God's own Atma. This is how he is regarded by God. Because he is the only one who is attached to Him totally, all the time and takes refuge in Him. Living in this situation, he is sure to attain God, the most perfect and highest goal. But this does not happen so easily. Even Dnyani has to wait for many lives. After a devotion of many many lives after he becomes a Dnyani, this the best of all devotees, surrenders totally and completely to God. Then he realises that everything is God. Instead of saying God is in everything he says that God is everything. Such a person is very very rare to find.

Rebirth for Yogis and Dnyanis

            It should be noted that in the pursuit of self realization, many people become Karmayogis. They are born again and again as they pursue their efforts to become Dnyanis. There could be many Yogis but very few Dnyanis. These latter also are born again and again in the pursuit of their goal to cross the river of Maya and reach Him. Both the Yogis and Dnyanis acquire supernatural powers. They can work miracles. Yet they are still under the influence of His Maya. They are at a high position but they could still fall down if His Maya cheats them. When Yogis or Dnyanis start exhibiting their powers, perform miracles to impress upon people their own personality, their advancement is halted. They generally do a lot of good for humanity. But the slightest touch of ego or, wavering away from Love of God could lead them astray. They have to be born many times then, to come to the place from which they fell down. That is the reason. a Dnyani also is born many many times before he becomes one with God. Examples of such Yogis and Dnyanis are ample in the world.

            After many many lives, a Dnyani realizes and worships God with this realization that everything is God. He does not need to perform miracles, he does not want crowd to follow him. He does not have disciples. He is totally lost in love of God, which makes him see God everywhere. When he reaches the state, he automatically sees himself as God, though he never ever says or proclaims it. Because to whom will he say so. To him nothing else exists except God. Will he talk to God in another person that "I am God"? It is absurd. Can you imagine God talking to God that he is God. A Dnyani has to reach that stage and he reaches it by his devotional love.

What a common devotee desires?

            As far as other categories of devotees are concerned, their superlative thinking is muddled by various kinds of desires. They worship demigods. They follow the specific rules of worship applicable to there demigods. They  do receive favours from them. Their difficulties get removed, problems are solved. They often get their desires fulfilled. Hence such pious devotees who cannot think of God being everywhere and who do not wish to get Moksha, will always worship some or the other demigods. They pray, "God, in my next life, bless me with better things". In ignorance they think that the next life would be human life and this demigod can give it with some goodies and better amenities.

Faith in demigods

            Yet, in reality, the demigods receive their power from God, the inexplicable energy which occupies everything. God never interferes in the relation between the demigod and the devotee. There are devotees who follow certain accepted paths such as meditation, worshipping, prayers etc. They look down upon people who worship demigods. They even try to influence their thoughts by telling them not to do pooja of such demigods. They do so with genuine intentions, believing that idol worshipping is a waste of time. But it is not so. Such people must refrain from trying to change the faith of these ignorant devotees.

            Krishna has said in verses nos. 21 and 22, "Whosoever holds faith in a demigod and worships according to the applicable rules, finds favour with Me. I stabilise his faith in that demigod. He worships his God with that faith, strengthened by Me and receives benefits and gains for his desires according to My disposition but through the demigod."

            The reason for this is, it is nearly impossible to change somebody's faith and the one who tries to change it is also ignorant. He or she is not anywhere near God. Also, a devotee worshipping a demigod is, in fact worshipping God Himself. Through the demigod, he is drawn more and more near to God, day by day, year after year, life after life. His faith becomes stronger and stronger. He develops love for the demigod and begins to see his God everywhere. He unknowingly, walks on the right path.

            I would request all those intelligent devotees, therefore, not to ridicule others involved in idol worship or worship of some demigods, following some strange practices not understood by you. This will be against God's own wish. This may cause harm to your Sadhana because you will earn disfavour from God you worship.

            Devotees of demigods do get rewards for their devotion and faith. But these rewards are temporary. They do not last. It is their faith and devotion which finds pleasure with the demigod who blesses them at that time and either fulfils that desire or removes, obstacles from their path in material world. These devotees, reach the world of their demigods, whereas devotees of Him go to Him.

Ignorance about God

            God is not somebody with form. He is not a human being with a physical and subtle bodies. He is unmanifested, therefore, without any form. It is the ignorance about Him and His creation that people look upon Him as somebody sitting high up in heaven and deciding on the fate of individuals. We are told "Do not behave in this bad manner, God will punish you, or do this work, worship and pray God in Mandir or Mosque or Church or  at home in this manner and God will reward you. Many of us believe this, and imagine that there is somebody called God who sits above. He sees everything. He punishes us for bad deeds and rewards us for good ones. Therefore we must do such and such thing to please Him. These people do not comprehend His unmanifested existence.

            The main reason for this ignorance is His Maya. It surrounds us from all sides. Therefore, ignorant people cannot understand His unborn inexhaustible nature. Ignorant means not those who have a very low degree of intelligence. In the question of understanding and realizing God, everybody is ignorant except the Dnyani. So unless one becomes a Dnyani it is not possible to realize Him. Till that time we are all ignorant. We may be experts in Vidnyana, the knowledge of His creation but ignorant in Dnyana, the experience of God Himself.

Importens of faith

            It is important to know that He comes very near to us in pursuit of realization and experience, only when faith triumphs and intellect bows out. Intellect must be used to subdue the mind to break its link with the senses. Therefore the intellect, with mind on its tail, must dissolve in self, giving place to unflinching faith, super patience and love.

            God has knowledge of all his creations, the beings that were before, that are living now and those who will be there in future, but none understands Him. As He is in everything as Atma, and as all beings are governed by His laws of Karma, He knows where an individual will go after this life. He knows how many and which forms any particular Jiva or Atma had. He also knows how the Atma will behave in future lives because He can see the chain of Vasana. He knows how these Vasanas will put forth desires and what will happen then. A being can't do anything when an Atma takes birth in any form other than human. Because in all other forms, the being cannot do any Karma, but only pays for its previous human Karma. A being may have many such non human lives, depending upon the Karma. It is only in the human life, that God can do something for that being. The Atma in human body retains past "Sanskaras" (Vasanas and habits), as well as the level of intelligence reached before. God creates for him an atmosphere conducive for his further development. It is for the human being then to make the most of that life.

            Awake, therefore, my friends, arise and work.

            All beings are greatly confused while they live, because of happiness and sorrow arising out of desire and the latent anger in it. When people do lot of good Karma, the reward helps them to wash away their sins. These people can get out of the delusion of happiness and sorrow and with a strong determination try to reach God.

What is good karma?

            Good Karma does not necessarily mean doing good for family and friends, because you have some attachment to them. You may donate fifty thousand rupees in charity or feed a thousand poor people with the intention of doing some good Karma. This intention creates an attachment and your deed, though good, does not become a "Punya" Karma. But you see a frail old poor man walking on the street and suffering from the severe cold wind blowing at that time. You are wearing a woollen jacket which keeps you warm. If you spontaneously, walk over to that unknown man, take off your jacket and put it around him so that he stops suffering you have done a good Karma. When you leave that jacket to him for his own use and return to your path without even thinking of having done something good, your entire action becomes a Punya Karma. Punya means service done to third party without attachment and without expecting good returns.

            Intelligent people who try for liberation from old age and death take refuge in God in devotional service. These people, in effect, try to liberate themselves from bondage and thus are keen to attain Moksha. They, in due course, realize Brahma, the whole spiritual science and the laws of Karma. Finally in the last verse, no. 30, Krishna declares, "I am made up of "Adhibhuta", "Adhidaiva" and "Adhiyagnya". He who realizes Me thus, by thinking about Me, always remembers Me at the time of death.

            Thus ends the chapter seven on Dnyana-Vidnyana Yoga. In the next chapter, Krishna explains the three terms used in this last verse.

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