Sanyas means renunciation. When the war commenced Arjuna wanted to stay away from it. However, Krishna admonished him and then started advising, when Arjuna implored Him to do so. This was the beginning of Gita. Arjuna was renunciating his Karma. Krishna explained to Him what is true renunciation. Now after hearing so much, Arjuna says to Krishna,

Sanyas and Tyaga

            "O God, I wish to know the truth about Sanyasa and Tyaga separately." (Both the terms mean Renunciation).

            So from verses no. 2 to 66, in sixty-five verses, He talks at length on various topics which have been explained in preceding chapters. In verses no. 2 to 11 he explains the two terms, as under.

"Giving up of Karmas prompted by material desire is what the learned men call Sanyasa. And giving up the results of all activities is called Tyaga. In reality both are same. Some learned men say that all Karma is faulty because it ends into some results, hence all should be given up. Yet some others say that Yagnya, austerities and charity must not be given up. O' Arjuna, now hear what I say in this matter. Tyaga (Renunciation) is declared in scriptures to be of three kinds."

            The purpose of Renunciation is to get rid of the bondage that results from every Karma. One who aspires to attain Moksha - liberation from Karmic bondage -  in order to be free from rebirth, must not hold any attachment to his Karma. Giving up Karma altogether is not possible becauce of the influence of the three Gunas of Prakruti. And to perform Karma is the only thing what humans can do. Hence performing Karmas without attachment (Tyaga) is recommened and considered the right thing. It is same as giving up Karmic activity (sanyas) as both aim at the same result.

            We see people wearing saffron robes, living in almost exile status, away from people. These are called Sanyasis because they have given up the Karmas which, otherwise, they would have performed, had they been living in society like family men. Yet, it is possible that their minds may still remember the life they have left behind. It means they could still have attachment and do Karmic activity mentally. In course of time, when they get immersed in the prescribed Sanyasi- routine, they gradually get over the remnants of attachment. Then they become Tyagis. As against this, a Tyagi has already no attachment to any Karma, even though he does not live the life of a sanyasi. His renunciation is complete.

            So we can say that "Sanyas" is a way of living to achieve total renunciation which is "Tyaga". Now, in verses 5 to 9 Krishna explains the three kinds of "Tyaga", referred to above .

Three types of renunciation (Tyaga)

            Firstly, He says, one must never give up Yagnya (sacrifice), Dana (charity) and Tapa (austerities). Everyone must perform these three Karmas. Because they purify the mind. Yet, even these Karmas also must be performed without any attachment. The doer must not have any expectation in his mind from these Karmas. "This" Krishna says, "is My firm and final opinion." Then He says, no one should give up prescribed duties. Renouncing them is termed as Tamas renunciation. Because, the reason for such renunciation is illusion. Secondly, one who gives up his prescribed duties because they are troublesome or because of fear of performing them, his renunciation is termed Rajas renunciation. He never succeeds in achieving the goal or fulfilling the aim of renunciation. Thirdly, when one performs prescribed duties, because they ought to be done, and then renounces all attachment to it, giving up any sort of material expectation, his renunciation is called Sattwic. Such a renouncer does not hate that part of his duties which is unpleasant nor rejoices in doing the pleasant part. He uses his intellect and has no doubts about performing all his duties. It is indeed impossible for a human being to give up all activities, and he who has thus renounced the fruits of Karma is the one who is a real renouncer (Tyagi)

            According to above, one is free to follow any path. However, the best one and also the right one is to do all your prescribed duties, whatever they are, and learn to give up attachment to them. It is stupid to give up one's work because it is boring, or not remunerative, or because one is saddled with family problems and has never any peace of mind. Giving up one's own job and other activities for these reasons, does not achieve anything in the end. Hence, family men and women should continue to live their lives, and never dream of giving them up, to go and live in any monastry or ashram to carry out spiritual Karma.

Prescribed Karma

            The words "prescribed Karma" mean all those activities which one is engaged with. It means every single job which one is required to do whether it is to one's liking or not. The only test to be carried out is ask yourself a question, "is this right what I am doing at this time?" This is a multi million dollar question and if you make it your Dharma to judge between right and wrong, and then take the right path, you will rise and go to very high places both in material and spiritual aspirations.

Sacrifice, Charity, Austerity must be done

            Yet, there may be some people who lack faith, whose whole life is based on doubts and questions. They may not accept what is written here. They may give up their prescribed duties. They will learn their lesson. But they are strongly advised not to give up Yagnya, Dana and Tapa (sacrifice, charity, austerity). Even the family men who perform their duties, whether with attachment or without, must perform these three Karmas. Perform them without attachment. How to do them?

            Yagnya (sacrifice): In Kaliyuga yagnya means sacrificing some of your earned money or wealth, you time or you expertise or even you possessions in favour of some  needy, deserving person unknown to you.

            This does not mean you give away large sums of money or give up your valued possessions to the poor. Remember, you are doing your duties which require you to earn your living and maintain those who are dependant on you. You cannot give up those responsibilities. You also need to spend time in other activities which are tied up with your life. The more busy you are the less time you will have to spare, because you also need leisure and recreation. So the more responsibilities you have, the money required will be more. If your prescribed job cannot fetch the money you need, you may be doing something else to earn more money. All these activities must go on. A businessman wants to expand his business so, has neither the time nor the money to spare. Accepted. A person who manages to make both ends meet, wants to have more comfortable life, a decent house and some more amenities. It means to work more and earn more, so no time nor money to spare. Agreed.

            Then how to perform sacrifice or give charity? Very simple. We are talking of sacrifice. It can be done in two ways by giving some of your time and expert knowledge to somebody who needs it but cannot have it.

Sacrificing time and Knowledge       

            You are a teacher, expert in mathematics. You teach in a school. In you spare time, you take tuitions for a fee, because you need that extra money. Good. Now think, can you spare some time, if not everyday, maybe a couple of hours on a weekend? Yes, I agree you do need to have time for your family, and leisure and recreation, entertainment. The weekend is not enough. But still find some time. It is difficult, I know. But remember, the word is sacrifice. If you had plenty of your time which you while away sleeping, gossiping or just lying idle at home, and if you spare some of it, it will NOT be a sacrifice. You will be doing something good if you help others, spending your own time. It will be a good Karma but not a sacrifice.

            Sacrifice means give up that which you need. You need time legitimately for your family. Set aside one or two hours curtailing your own leisure time. Find out if any student who has brains but cannot afford to take tuitions. If he receives coaching, he could stand first in not only your school but in the whole city or district. Its a deserving case. Sacrifice those two hours of your weekend, ask him to come to your house and coach him. Do not expect anything in return. Do not make him run errands for you. This is sacrifice.

            You are a renowned tailor or a carpenter or engaged in any other profession which requires skill. Spare some time and train even one boy or girl in that profession so that the person can do something and stand on own legs. This is sacrifice.

            You have no skills. You are just an ordinary worker or office goer. You do normal job which anybody can do. There is nothing that you can teach. But you still have some time to spare. No you don't. We are not talking of your spare time. We are talking of the time which you have for you but you are giving it for somebody else now, as a sacrifice.

            You have a neighbour, bedridden due to some illness. His daughter has taken leave of absence from her work to look after her father. Her leave is over and she has to resume. She does not have any more off days or leave. She has two choices, either to resume work or to resign and stay home. Her father does not need full-time attention but somebody has to be at home for two hours in the afternoon when he sleeps. There is nobody else in the house. You are a housewife. You can volunteer to use those two hours for your neighbour. It may be necessary for two weeks. This is your sacrifice.

            When you give some of your own time or knowledge of any subject to others who are in need of it, and when you do this without expecting a return favour, you are doing a Yagnya.

            Dana (charity): There is a well known proverb. "Charity begins at home." Charity means, in general, giving away money or other basic needs to needy. We have seen what it is in preceding chapters. But charity does not always mean according help in difficult times.

            You are standing in front of your house or you are taking a morning walk. You see children walking to a nearby school. The weather is getting cold. Everybody has a pullover or a wind cheater on. But you see one kid with only a white cotton shirt. He is fighting to keep away from cold. You see him every day. You enquire and find that the kid comes from a family which is in difficulties. You buy a woollen cardigan and give it to the boy. This is charity.

            You see a kitten in a garden sitting under a tree. You watch the poor thing for some time. You realise that it has no home. You pick it up, bring it home and keep it, in your house. You provide the kitten with food and shelter. This is great charity.

            If you see any opportunity when you can give money, food, clothing or shelter to anybody who needs any one of these basic necessities, and you provide it you are doing charity.

            Oh' I almost forgot. What if you do not have money to spare? You can keep aside a fraction of your earning. Suppose you earn a hundred rupees or a hundred dollars a day. This may be just enough for you to maintain yourself and your family. You need more money to have little more comfortable living. Yet you are not starving. You can keep aside say two rupees or two dollars every day. In a month you will have sixty bucks. You can use that money to satisfy some needy person's need. Remember, there are millions of people who are poorer and in distress than you. Be happy with what you have and consider yourself fortunate that your basic needs are satisfied. Think of those God's children who starve or live on pavements or have not enough clothes. Some of them may be just lazy bums doing nothing. Yet some may be really deserving. Find them out. If you determine, you will definitely find them. Don't forget where there is  will there is a way. All you need is a strong desire. Giving charity is not as difficult as you think.

            Tapa (austerity): In Kaliyuga who has time to sit in meditation for years and years or do some other penance, like they did in the past yugas? No, the Tapa in Kaliyuga is different. It means taking troubles to help others.

            You sacrifice two hours of your weekend to teach a deserving student. You find that the boy has an injured leg, so he is unable to come to your house. His house is about 2 kilometres away and he has been walking that distance all these weekends. Now you go to him. The physical strain you undergo is Tapa.

            In short, when you devote your time to help somebody or when you, give your knowledge, for which normally you would be paid for, to some needy poor person free, it is sacrifice. When you give away something of your own to a deserving needy person not withstanding your need, you are doing charity and the physical labour and strain you undergo in doing that is Tapa.

            Anybody who has the will can do it. God does not want you to make a big sacrifice, nor, does he expect you to give big charity nor to undergo severe physical strain. What matters is your willingness to do so, and doing it without minding the difficulties you may have to encounter in doing it. Even a person with meagre means can do this.

            So my friends, bear in mind what you have to do. You owe it to God. At least thank Him for whatever He has given you, thinking about millions who do not have even half of what you have. Then in return, give Him this service. No need to give money to build Houses of God. Yes, if you want to do it, go ahead. That is good Karma. But that is not Yagnya, nor Dana nor Tapa.

            After elaborating in detail on Karma in all preceding chapters, laying stress on the necessity for doing Karma without attachment to its fruits, Krishna says in verse no. 12, "For one who is not renounced, Karma results into fruits of three kinds - good, bad or a mixture of both - after death. But a real Tyagi who has renounced all attachment is free from the fruit. Fruit of Karma in next life

            It is interesting to note the words "after death". It is a common belief that what we suffer or enjoy in this life is a result of our Karma in this life. It is not so. What we suffer or enjoy on physical level is a result or fruit of Karma performed in the past life or lives. In this life whatever Karma we do is etched in the mind with all thoughts, which were entertained by the mind in performing that Karma. When Prarabdha Karma (the portion that was given to us from past life, to live in this life) gets over, the physical body dies. There is nothing more left for it to suffer or enjoy. Whatever Karma is done in this life thus goes with the mind, which forms a bondage to Atma, to be suffered or enjoyed in next life. As each Karma may be accompanied by totally good or totally bad or mixed motives and intentions, the fruit also will be given accordingly. We do not know what will be the exact fruit because we have no right to it, so we are not supposed to know. As a human being, in this world we work and Karma is performed physically, mentally, intellectually and by senses. What Karma we do and how we do it, is in our hands. That's all we can do. There is somebody else who judges the Karma and decides the fruit.

Five factors to accomplish Karma

            According to the Sankhya philosophy there are five causes which go in accomplishing a Karma. Krishna explains those in verses no. 14 and 15. "The five factors which are required for any Karma to be performed are, (i) the place (physical body), (ii) the doer, (iii) sense organs, (iv) the many different endeavours and (v) God or energy. Whatever right or wrong Karma a human being performs by body mind or speech is caused by these five factors."

            The first point at which a desire is born is the sense organs. When any one or more senses come in contact with any external object, mind starts working. It keeps an image of the object, stored inside. That part of mind is called "Chitta". When senses are not interested in any external object, the mind looks into the chitta and sees if any stored object is worth actioning for, at that time. So, after the senses, the different endeavours like chitta, the three gunas come into the field of action. The action is to be performed at some place. Thus the body is involved. Whether it is physical action or action by mind, a body is a must for performing it. Then somebody has to take the lead and say "Okay, I will do it." This is the doer. The Atma within the body gets entangled in the subtle body of mind, intellect and ego, and says "I have done it" etc. So this is the doer. Finally, the Supreme God who is everywhere is required to oversee every action. He is in all. There is no place without Him.

Ownership of Karma

            The Karma on physical level is performed, by the body. If Atma does not get involved and stays aloof then, somebody has to come forward to take the ownership of the Atma. There is nobody else. Body, mind, intellect, senses, the gunas etc. are all involved in the action. They do not become owners. If Atma refuses to be drawn in, then God has to take ownership. He doesn't take active part but the ownership goes to Him. The Karma becomes non attached. When Atma gets involved as a doer, the ownership goes to him and the Karma becomes attached, causing bondage.

            Under the circumstances, when you, the individual Atma, foolishly call yourself to be the doer of all actions performed by your body, you get involved. If you consider these factors and decide not to claim the ownership, you are free of bondage. Hence, one who thinks himself to be Karta (doer) of every Karma, is certainly not intelligent and cannot see things as they really are.

            We have been given intellect for this reason. Why other animals and creatures do not have intellect? Their actions are based on instinct. Only a human being is blessed with this tool which has the capacity to take decisions. Let it be used.

            Your son is playing in the house. There is a loud noise, as if something is exploded. He runs to see what it is. Other people also are going there. You are in the house. After a few minutes there is another big noise. A few minutes later your son comes running. He is crying. There was some explosion and he got hurt in the leg by a fragment of wood that flew away. The injury is not serious but his leg is bleeding. You attend to it and shout at him saying, "Why did you go there? Was it necessary? It was none of your business what happened there? If you had stayed home, you would be safe."

            Consider this boy as your Atma or you, in fact. There are so many things happening in your body. You have been given this body to stay there till all the Prarabdha Karma of the body is over. You do not have to take part in any activity. So why don't you just sit comfortably in your place and enjoy all that is happening. Let God, your father, take care of everything. This attitude is not easy to develop. But it can be done by using intellect. So try hard and do it. Get out of the bondage in this life. The one entity who is going to oppose you, is your false ego. Just remember you are superior to it. Do not be its slave.

Discard ownership of Karma

            Krishna says in verse no. 17, "One who is not influenced by false ego, whose intellect is not entangled, though he kills people in this world, does not really kill. He is not bound by his actions."

            Arjuna is thus indirectly told to pick up his bow and fight, do his prescribed Karma. If he were to do it as his duty, being non attached to the result, he would not be bound. Krishna had already showed him, in His Universal form, that all those assembled on the battle field, except the Pandavas, were going to die. Arjuna was foolishly, taking the ownership of the Karma, which he had to do, himself and creating a bondage for him.

Three main entities in Karma

            What we have to understand from this is, whatever is happening is preordained. God and His Prakruti are playing a game. We belong to Him. Our body belongs to Prakruti. He stays aloof from everything. So let us emulate Him and do not get involved with the mind. But since Karma has to be done, let us do it without getting attached to it. In every Karma three things are involved. Firstly the knowledge, secondly the object of knowledge and thirdly the knower. The entities which are involved in the action are the senses (including the mind), the work and the doer.

            Let us take a small example. You want to cook some vegetables for the dinner. You have potatoes, onions and beans in the house. Firstly you must have the knowledge of how to cook. Secondly you need different ingredients or the objects and thirdly you yourself are required, as a doer, to cook. Once you have the three factors - you are there, you have the necessary ingredients and you also have the knowledge, you can start the Karma of cooking. In your action, what entities take part are your senses including mind, you yourself as the doer and the work of cooking (action performed).

            Then in verse no. 19, Krishna says "According to the three gunas (sattwa, Raja, Tama) there are three kinds of knowledge, action and performer of action. Now hear them from Me."

            We have seen in great details how the three gunas influence Karma, what are their effects and how they work. Now, in verses nos., 20 to 28, we learn the three types of knowledge, Karma (action) and Karta (doer) in relation to the three gunas. Firstly we will see about knowledge, which refers to the belief in existence of God.

            Sattwic knowledge: That knowledge by which one sees and realizes existence of God everywhere in all beings, even though, in form, they are different from each other, is termed Sattwic. To have this knowledge means to understand that God is not somebody in heaven but He pervades the universe as Brahma and therefore, all beings are same. It means to understand that even if all bodies perish, He will remain. He is one undivided complete living force throughout.

            Rajas knowledge: That knowledge by which one sees the existence of God separately in each different living being is Rajas. This means considering each body as the living entity. When the body is destroyed, the living entity or Atma is also destroyed. This understanding stems from the realization that individuals behave in different ways because of their own consciousness of the material world. When the body perishes, the consciousness also dies with it. There is no other God and there is nothing in common or a separate living force uniting different bodies.

            Tamas knowledge: That knowledge by which one remains attached to one kind of work as the all in all, without understanding the truth, and which is very meagre, is Tama.

            Such a person does not believe in God. For him, the only thing that matters is the pleasures of the senses which are never permanent. His God is money. His knowledge and understanding is limited to what his senses perceive. Such a person is purely materialistic in life.

            You can find out from you own views about God and this world, and judge for yourself what type of knowledge of this world you have. Do you believe in God, whom you cannot perceive and feel that He is the force behind all actions of all individuals so He is everywhere as one entity? Do you think that the living force called God is there, but He has nothing to do with Karma etc.? Do you, therefore, think that when a living being dies, the God also goes with the being? Or do you believe that all talk of God is useless and think, that what you see, hear, smell, taste and touch is everything? Think it over and judge where you stand? The fact remains that, whether you believe in God or not, you will have to pay for your Karma in next life and the life after that, as this body of yours is nothing but an instrument. It is unreal.

            Sattwic Karma: Karma which is right and which is performed without attachment, likes or dislikes and without desire for fruit is Sattwic.

Rajas Karma: Karma which is done with the intention of gratifying one's desire and with a sense of false ego in Rajas.

            Tamas Karma: The Karma done in illusion, without concern of bondage from it, in utter disregard to scriptures, and voilence or distress caused to others, is Tamas. 

            Thus Karma can be performed in the three different ways. The way you do it determines its type. You must remember that anything to do with "Tama" guna or that which is termed as Tamas will pave your way, after death, to hell.

            Sattwic Karta (doer): One who does work but remains aloof from it in mind, who has no false ego about doing it, who does it with great determination and enthusiasm and without bothering about success or failure is a Sattwic performer.

            It means, you do your duty, whatever right action you have to take. Do not be concerned about how it will end. The gunas may initiate a desire which will impel you to do Karma. Do not fall a victim to your desire, use intellect and decide if it is right. If so, then do it without thinking of fruit. Then you become a Sattwic doer.

            Rajas Karta:  The doer of Karma who is attached to the Karma and its fruits, desiring to enjoy them, and one who is greedy, ready to cause harm to others, if necessary, impure and moved by happiness and sorrow  is Rajas performer.

            Tamas Karta: The doer who is engaged in Karma against the scriptural laws, who is obstinate, lazy, a cheat and well versed in insulting others, who is always morose and procrastinating, materialistic, is called Tamas Performer.

            So, every Karma and the Karta (doer), when you get attached to your Karma, is branded as per the three gunas. The Sattwic type is the best and that is what we all should aim to be. The Tamas type is the worst which must be avoided. The Rajas type is attractive but not in the interest of Atma, as in the long run, the end result is more suffering and less pleasure. Then in verse no. 29, Krishna says to Arjuna, "Now listen to the different kinds of understanding (intellect) and determination according to the three gunas.

            Sattwic understanding (intellect): The understanding by which one knows what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, and at what time, what is to be feared and what is not to be feared, what leads to bondage and what to liberation, is Sattwic.

            Rajas understanding (intellect): The understanding which is not able to differentiate between right and wrong behaviour, which is not clear about the course of action to be taken if it is right or wrong, is Rajas.

            Tamas understanding (intellect): The understanding which, because of ignorance, considers the wrong behaviour to be the right one and always does that which is wrong is Tamas.

            Intellect decides the course of action. We have seen before, that the mind prompts but the intellect decides. To take any decision, good understanding of the situation is essential

            You have booked two tickets for a movie in town, for you and your spouse. The show starts at 3 pm. You have to leave home by 2 pm. and you are going by train. In the morning a political leader has been murdered in the city. There is a big commotion and shops are pulling down the shutters. Public is enraged. There are stone throwing incidences. You hear this on radio and TV. If your understanding of the overall situation in the city is clear and good, you will cancel your going out and stay put. If your understanding is not clear and you do not know whether to believe the news, or you cannot judge how serious the situation may be, you may venture to go. You may say to yourself, "why not go and see. If the show is cancelled, we will return." If you do not know anything then you may take the wrong decision to go. Hence, in all our decisions, the understanding of the situation as a whole is very important.

            Often, we take decisions which are not based upon all facts. Many times, we depend or base our decision on what others say. It is absolutely essential for all of us to have a thorough understanding based on facts, of any situation before we decide the course of action. Misunderstanding or total lack of understanding can cause severe damage. Hence, do not try to reach a decision in any matter unless you have all the facts with you.

            Sattwic determination: The determination which remains steadfast, which controls the activities of mind, life and senses, and which is never muddled, is Sattwic.

            Rajas determination: The determination to hold fast to the fruit of any Karma, even, though all actions are right, and which is directed to some gratification, is Rajas.

            Tamas determination: The determination which generates and indulges in dreams, fear, lamentation, distress and illusion, and the one which does not leave wrong understanding, is Tamas.

            Understanding precedes determination. Both actions pertain to intellect. When you are placed in a problematic situation and you have to take decision, firstly you need to have good understanding and then the power to determine the course of action. The type of determination you hold will be one of the three types above. If you think that on many occasions your determination falls in the second or third type, then you have to do something about it.

            In the like manner, even the happiness in this world is of three types by which the imprisoned Atma enjoys, and by which suffers distress also in the end.

            Sattwic happiness: That which appears like poison in the beginning but in the end is like nectar and which takes one to self realisation, is Sattwic happiness.

            Rajas happiness: That which is derived from the contact of sense objects with the senses, and which appears like nectar in the beginning but poison at the end, is Rajas happiness.

            Tamas happiness: That which is caused by delusion in the beginning as also at the end, and which is derived from sleep, laziness and illusion, is Tamas happiness.

            These are the types of happiness we experience. If you have a Sattwic nature i.e. if you are a person who likes peace and quite, solitude and seclusion occasionally, if you do not like to hurt anybody, your idea of happiness will be different from the other types. To get this type of happiness, you have to turn away from sense objects which becomes painful in the beginning. This happiness may result from small matters.

            You are keen on getting your room decorated. You have excellent ideas. You have decided what paint colour to be applied to the walls, what type of tapestry you want as, well as where and which plants you want to keep etc. etc.. You have been on the job for several days, and today you can complete it. But you have to work for at least eight hours. You make a start and your friend phones you to go with him for a day long outing with a young group of boys and girls. You love such outings, but today you reject his invitation. You work hard, suffer exhaustion, but by late evening you finish your job. Now everything is in proper place and the room looks more beautiful than you had planned and imagined. Your sister and mother come in. You have kept them out, sort of debarred them from entering the room all these days. Now you call them. They are amazed. With eyes wide open they stand in bewilderment. They shower praises on you and admire your patience and persistence. You feel very happy. This is Sattwic happiness.

            Your friend comes at that time. He also is happy to see your room. He sits and talks dejectedly about the party. He says everything was going beautiful - music, good food, drinks, dancing, gossiping etc. But towards the end, things were out of control. Some boys started teasing the girls in a mood of jest but in the end started to molest them. There was hysteria. Some drank so much that they puked. Some just slept. Your friend developed a headache. The happiness he enjoyed during the day is Rajas.

            Next day your friend sleeps the entire morning. He has a hangover and is feeling lazy to do anything. He had to do some work in the house, his own work. He procrastinates, keeps it for next weekend. He is feeling lousy so he prefers lying down in bed lazily. This is Tamas happiness.

            The one act of yours which gave you Sattwic happiness keeps you happy for many more days. You invite your friends. They wonder and appreciate your work. Some of them want you to give them ideas about decorating their rooms. You feel more happy. Sattwic happiness does not end. Its taste is like nectar. It refreshes you, makes you more enthusiastic and active. It takes you up, on the ladder of success.

            Rajas and Tamas type of happiness unnerves you, makes you feel bad and dampens your spirit, long after you have enjoyed it. The basic principle here is of Karma. In the first instance you did what was the right thing to do. Your friend could not decide whether it was right to stay home and finish his household, or to go for the party. His understanding was poor, determination unripe and he took the Rajas way of doing Karma. Sattwa was never there. He had already kicked it out. There is none, either in this world or in other two worlds including demigods, who is freed from the influence of gunas. Krishna says in verse no. 41 that the four types of beings who were so classified according to their duties and gunas - the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras - are all distinguished by the gunas. Their work is allotted to them in accordance with the gunas with which they were born.

            Everybody is born with all the three gunas but the proportion varies and the one which dominates most of the time, becomes the determining factor in deciding action. Those who have peaceful nature, self-control, austerity, forgiveness, tolerance, knowledge, wisdom and religiousness are fit to work as a Brahmin. That means these qualities are required to do the work which the type, called Brahmins, is called upon to perform. Those who are called Kshatriyas need to have heroism, strength, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and leadership qualities. Persons called Vaishyas are those engaged in business. They need to have qualities such as liking for farming, agriculture, cow protection and business; while Shudras need to have liking for labour work and service to others.

            By following his own qualities of work, every being can reach perfection. It is clear, therefore that no Karma is degrading. Karma is Karma. The one that comes to your lot is your prescribed one. You may be a district collector. You get high salary, perks, honour in society, name and fame because of your status. That status is attached to the position you are given. The position demands you to carry out many jobs. How you do them, decides your next life. Your Karma in that position could be Sattwic, Rajas and Tamas. Accordingly your happiness and accordingly your life after death.

            Same philosophy and rules apply to a person who works in your office as a sweeper His job is to sweep floors, clean desks and chairs and fans; tidy the rooms and run errands for the staff. His salary is according to the job he does. His Karma will also be branded as Sattwic , Rajas or Tamas. Accordingly he will get his happiness and next life. If you throw away Sattwa from your window and welcome the other two, you will never have peace, nor real lasting happiness and in next life or lives you will suffer to a great extent. If you give top position to Tama in all your acts, make him your close friend, you will end up in hell to be sure. The sweeper, who on the other hand, is Sattwic in his Karma always, will go to heaven and when he comes to the earth he will be born in a good family with excellent surroundings. If he is totally sattwic and develops love for God, he may succeed in breaking the Karmic bondage and reach God's abode.

            In verse no. 45, Krishna says, "By performing his own Karma every human being can attain perfection. Now listen from Me, how one can do this."

            By worshipping Him, who is the source of all beings and who pervades everything, one can attain perfection through performing all one's own duties.

Guna-Karma relationship

            In present times, the four-layer classification of groups of people, done, according to work and the qualities required to perform that work, has lost its sense and meaning. The top layer group has condemned and ill-treated the lowest layer in the past. Today the situation is changing. It is difficult to say whether it is improving or going from bad to worse. People born with a high degree of Sattwa guna are engaged in doing menial jobs which are meant for those having dominant Tama guna; while those with high Tama, are doing the work which requires the highest type of Sattwa guna. Qualities one has, are not related to the Karma one performs. It is not possible for these people to change their positions. It is not practicable also. In a world where money plays the deciding role, where greed and lust change people's mind easily, who has the time and desire to allot jobs according to one's gunas? In the field of education also there is corruption in some cases. You read in newspapers about bogus certificates and degrees being issued. It may not be surprising if the doctor who treats you may have obtained his degree in medicine by unfair means, or he may not be a qualified medical practitioner.

Do your Karma in a good way

            But each individual can at least do one thing. Whatever job he does, he can do it in such a way that it becomes  a Sattwic Karma. If a person with killing tendency and interested in making money by any means, for enjoying sensual pleasures, is placed in a high position in public life, he can spend his ill earned money for the benefit of the population. He can sincerely pray God. He can  thank God for giving him that position and decide to change himself. He can gather Sattwic people around him so they can give him good advice and stop from doing unwanted Karma. If each one does his own work as a duty given by God and remembers God all the time, not only the person will change but it will change the face of the world. No nations will fight. There will be no race for power. But then we will be entering Satyayuga which is still approximately 427.000 years away. We are in Kaliyuga and that is the reason we have to understand how Gita, God's spoken words, is to be understood and practised, so that we lead a better life and our children will have better tomorrow.

            To worship God, while doing one's duty, means to see God in every being. Whatever be your position in life, if you understand and follow this dictate of God, you will be blessed. If you treat others as humans, sympathetically look at their problems and do whatever you can in accordance with prescribed laws, you will be doing service to God. To serve the down trodden, handicapped, poverty stricken people is serving God. That is the best mode of His worship.

            Krishna says in verse no. 47, "Your own Dharma is superior to that of another, even if it may be not perfect and the other one appears better. When you perform Karma as per your natural Dharma, you do not get affected by sinful reactions."

            He has already reiterated this principle in verse no. 35 of chapter 3. Therein He said that even dying, doing ones own Dharma is superior to following that of another. This principle or edict has to be looked from two points in Kaliyuga. We have learnt about the Karmas and their relation with the three gunas. When we are asked to perform our own Dharma means, the one which we are qualified to do as per the dominance of gunas. Krishna had classified types of individuals as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras according to the gunas, and their Karmas were specified. Hence a Brahmin should not perform the Karma of any of the other three types. Likewise all others should stick to their own Dharma, however faulty or difficult it may seem. The fact in this principle is, that if a person, who is born with a nature to do bad deeds is given a responsible job, he may not be able to do it correctly. It means a Sattwic person is not fit to do any hard labour or menial work. A Tamas person is not qualified to do administration or religious and pious work.

            However, in Kaliyuga, situation has changed. The four classified types are no more doing their own Karma. A Sattwic person is engaged himself in doing the Karma of the third type. A Tamas person is engaged in doing high position jobs which require excellent understanding, selflessness dedication and devoted attention, keeping in mind the welfare common people. So on and so forth. Hence in Kaliyuga, one should consider one's allotted or accepted duties as one's Dharma and if one does not have the requisite qualities for carrying out those duties, one should change one's own behaviour including food habits, entertainment, recreation etc., to cast off the unuseful and acquire the suitable and useful qualities.

            It is a curse to humanity that the last two types have been branded as accursed persons by others who by birth belong to the first two types. If every individual were to consider every other person, irrespective of the type, as same as he is, things would have been different. But this is Kaliyuga where Dharma is in danger of not being followed. That is why Krishna has repeated this verse, though in different words, to stress upon us the importance of sticking to our own Dharma.

            Every Karma has some faults or imperfections in the sense that the performing of it does not give complete satisfaction to the doer. Just as even pure fire is not without smoke, so also even good Karma is not without its undesirable part. Hence one should never give up one's accepted Karma.

            It is a point to note that even Karma, and all that goes in performing it, is pervaded by not only God but also the three gunas. So even the purest and most the deserving and laudable Karma will have some undesirable part. e.g. You have lot of money. You want to construct a hall and donate it to a charitable institution to carry out noble tasks. You call local leaders and everybody is happy about it. Now you start performing this noble Karma. You go to the municipal office for permission and you do not get it easily. Everything is in order, there need not be any reason for delay, yet you have to wait for many months. You go to the office many times and meet the authorities. You draw a blank. Finally, you get the permission but your enthusiasm is dampened. This will happen if the people you are dealing with are dominated by Raja or Tama guna. They are by nature not qualified to be in that position, because it is difficult for them to think selflessly. If any one of them sees his own material benefit, because his Tamas disposition compels him, he will not put his signature on the paper to go ahead with the work.

            If the Dharma and Karma distribution was according to guna-Karma based four types, things would have been different. In that case, this principle would mean that even a Tamas person should not grudge his menial or labour work because the payment is not enough. Also a Sattwic person must not be upset because the people subordinate to him do not carry out their jobs perfectly.

Understand necessary in Kaliyuga

            In Kaliyuga, we must realise that whatever work we accept, whether in personal life or in public, however noble it may be, it will not be without difficulties. Even if everything seems to be in order, some unforeseen problems may crop up. If that happens, do not get discouraged. You have to do what you have to do. Carry on with your work without blaming others.

            You must, therefore, learn to control your emotions. One who is self controlled and unattached to one's Karma, and who has no material desires, can obtain perfection by renunciation of Karma fruit. If you behave like a true Sanyasi (one who has no desire for material benefits) and apply yourself whole heatedly to any work, there is no reason why you should get upset. In the end you will get complete peace, real joy out of your Karma and finally liberation from bondage.


            In verse no. 50, Krishna says, "Arjuna, now learn from Me how one who achieved this perfection can attain Brahma which is the highest knowledge (Dnyana)."

            Perfection is the key word here. You have to strive hard to be perfect. Whatever work you undertake, do it in such a manner that there is no room left for doubt. This is possible when you concentrate all your energy on the job in hand and consider that you are doing it as you duty, accepting it as God's Karma. He wants you to do it, so you must do it perfectly.

Path to self realization

            Krishna says in verses nos. 51 to 53, "By pure intelligence, controlling the mind with determination, giving up attachment of senses to their respective objects like speech etc., laying aside liking and hatred, living in a secluded place, who eats little food, who controls his body, mind and speech, who is always thinking of God and who is detached from ego and false pride, false strength, lust, anger and who does not accept any thing from anybody, who is free from the senses of ownership of any thing, and who is peaceful - such a person is elevated to the position of self realization."

            Now we see how difficult is the path of achieving self realization. It is so because self or soul or Atma is always free. Yet in the body, He is entangled in the web of own Karma - attachment. Because He left his own place to see what is happening elsewhere and took interest in it, he got tied down. These ties are also unbelievably old and so extremely difficult to cast off. The only way is to keep on telling yourself continuously that you are not the body, not the mind, not the senses. You are superior to them. You are part of God almighty. You must look to him and do not get involved with mind. Use your intellect and try to be non attached to every single Karma. Take up any path explained in preceding chapters. Then you will be on the path to realise who you really are.

Who can reach God's abode

            Krishna says in verses no. 54 to 56, "He who has attained Brahma becomes fully joyful. He never laments nor desires for anything. He sees all beings as equal and obtains My supreme devotion. He who understands Me as I am, by undiluted devotion, enters My kingdom later. Though he performs all his Karmas, under My protection he reaches the eternal and imperishable state by My grace."

            It should be noted that self realisation gives joy which is not comparable to happiness obtained by sense gratification. This is a state which is beyond comprehension. It must be experienced to be understood. There is no happiness no sorrow. When a devotee reaches this state, he sees God everywhere. He realises that His self is a replica of Him and that is present in every living being. There is no love, no hatred in him for anybody. He loves God and so he loves all. The statement that there is no love in his mind for anybody means humanly love which is always with attachment. When he sees God everywhere, he truly understands God and becomes ready for God to receive him.

Prescribed Karma must be done

            In verses no. 57 to 60, Krishna advises Arjuna thus, "If you keep your mind in Me, you will get over all difficulties by My grace. If, however, you think you are doing everything, under false ego and do not listen to Me, you will be lost. If you take refuge in your own ego and do not take my advice, then your present determination will be in vain. Prakruti will force you to get into the Karma of war (which you want to run away from). You are bound by your nature to fight this war. If you try to avoid it under the influence of illusion, you will do it, anyhow."

            Arjuna was sattwic by nature. He could not tolerate injustice and oppression. He was the bravest warrior on the battlefield. He had asked Krishna to place the chariot in between the two armies, because he was determined to fight. It was a momentary grief which overcame him and he lost all his courage. After a little while, he would have stood up and started to fight. But he would not have been able to do a good job. He would not have reached perfection. He might have even lost or got killed because his attempt would be half-hearted. The Sattwic guna in him together with "Raja" would have forced him to fight.

            Hence Krishna told him there was no point in giving in to the illusion. All actions are guided by Prakruti. We must understand this thoroughly. We often hear remarks., "what ever is to happen will happen." What it means is, actions are taken by individuals under the influence of the three gunas. Nobody can escape performing a given Karma. Common sense lies in understanding this fact and then doing the Karma in hand, with utmost sincerity and without attachment, without seeking any reward for it.

Grab oppertunity to be good Karma

            In routine life you are called upon to do many little jobs which you normally may not be doing. But when you are drawn in it, for whatever reason, it is pointless cribbing and complaining. Anyhow, you will be doing the job, so do it gracefully, putting all your heart in it and try to reach perfection. God will always protect you. He will rescue you when you are in a difficult situation any other time.

            You can go even one step further and perform Tapa (austerity). You have been invited for a function. You are socially a highly placed person. There are other dignitaries also present. Invitees have been sitting for more than thirty minutes and the service is poor because there are not enough people to work. You can see the host in a pitiable situation. He needs help. He does not know whom to ask and how. You get up and lend a helping hand. You get hold of a tray, place glasses of cold drinks in it and move in the rows of chairs to serve. Others may laugh at you. Those who are conscious of their social status may condemn you in their mind, but what does it matter to you? If you get rid of your self consciousness and become conscious of God, while you do the work which you are not accustomed to and which you would normally not do, you are elevated in the eyes of God. Not only that, you get peace and joy which comes from Him.

            You have to remember that no Karma is bad. It is your attitude towards doing it, that matters. Hence in performing any  Karma, dissolve your ego, leave aside your self consciousness and be with God. When you are conscious of Him, you are the real Master in any situation. Nothing can ever go wrong for you.

God is one-by whatever name you call him

            In verses nos. 61 and 62 Krishna says, "Arjuna, God resides in the heart of every being. By His own Maya (illusion) He makes everyone rotate, as if seated on a machine. So you surrender to Him only, with all your heart and feelings. By His grace you will attain everlasting peace and the supreme abode."

            These two verses are important. Up till now we have seen that Krishna talked of Himself as God. He told Arjuna, "Worship Me". He often said, "Those who worship Me with steadfast devotion and love, come to Me." Now He says to Arjuna, "Surrender to Him." The significance is that you can worship any form of God, not necessary Krishna. All you need is faith. Even He has said that He strengthens your faith in that form which you worship. Now He is very clear when He says, "Surrender to Him." The reason is simple.

            Arjuna had not known any other form of God. He was associated with Krishna from his childhood. He played with Him, joked with Him. It was obvious that Arjuna would not consider anybody else other than Krishna as God. It was pointless telling him to worship Rama or Vishnu or Shiva. Arjuna would have found it difficult. He believed in Krishna. He had faith in Him and He loved Him. It was easy for Krishna to explain to Him the secret of the universe, proclaiming Himself to be God and asking Him to think of Him.

            But, should people think that it is the form of Krishna only that must be worshipped, Krishna has clarified the matter by asking Arjuna to worship Him, the almighty, the unmanifested eternal God. There should be no doubt in the minds of people of any faith. Each individual must follow the dictates of the religion which one belongs to and understand that God is one. He is inexplicable energy which none can comprehend. That energy can take any form and any shape. All the beings are created from a fraction of the same energy. A part of the same energy resides in every being and gives life to it. He, the God Himself also resides in the heart of every being.

            You should worship Him. Those who follow idol worship, may stick to their own routines, and worship any form they have faith in. Because He is there. Krishna is just one of His names and incarnation. He is bigger, greater than that form. If you develop consciousness of Krishna you become God conscious. If you have Rama or Shiva or Jesus or Prophet Mohammed PBUH or Guru Nanak or Zaraster or Virgin Mary in your mind and become conscious of that form, you shall become God conscious. Whatever methods you use to worship, whatever prayers you say, whatever rituals you follow, so long as you realise that the God you worship resides in everybody's heart, and therefore, you must treat all equally, you are following what Krishna has said in Gita.

            He says to Arjuna, "Surrender to Him." Let us understand what is meant by surrendering God. Does it mean that you behave as per your whims, without bothering to think how your conduct affects others, and then go to a House of God, make a confession, pray, worship and say "I surrender to you"? No, it is not so.

            The simple meaning of the word surrender is to give. I took your book. Now I surrender it to you, means I give it to you. Surrender to God means to give yourself up to Him and say "Now I am yours, do with me what You wish." The first act that you do, when you surrender to Him is to put into practice His words wherein Krishna says "God resides in everybody's heart." If that is so then once you surrender to God, you cannot antagonise anybody. There must be no room for hatred, animosity, jealousy, dishonesty etc. in your mind. You must treat all as equal to yourself. Treat all others as you would like them to treat you. Help those in need. Realize that if receiving gifts gives you pleasure, then giving must be more pleasurable. Slowly slowly, you will go beyond the concept of "I" and "My". You will get over the Dhrutarashtra and the Duryodhana tendencies. You will come to the level of Arjuna and then be in a position to understand the supreme advice in Gita. You will know how it is to be implemented in Kaliyuga and how to better your living conditions.

            Remember, Krishna says, "God (not Me, not My) resides in everybody's heart. Surrender to Him."

            Then in verses nos. 63 and 64 He says, "Thus I have revealed to you the secret of all secrets of Dnyana. Think upon  it fully, and then do what you wish to do. Because you are very dear to Me, I will tell you the most confidential secret of all, again. So now listen to Me for your own benefit."

Use of intellect

            Krishna has explained to Arjuna the secret of the creation, the secret knowledge about greatness of God, His universal form, His omnipotence and His all pervading nature. He also explained in detail the Karma doctrine and the ways for humans to come out of its bondage. Then He leaves it to Arjuna whatever action he wants to take, whether to get up and fight like a brave warrior that he is, or sit there crying, get forced into action and die like a coward. He does not want to force Arjuna to act. He wants Arjuna to decide. This will depend upon how far he has understood the truth and grasped the secret.

            You readers, must also act accordingly. You should not change your ways of behaviour just because somebody tells you to do so, however high position the person may hold. Follow the advice only it you are convinced but when you think and ponder, do not be biased.

            Krishna says to Arjuna in verse no. 65, "Keep your mind focused on Me, worship Me, be My devotee, offer your homage to Me. Thus you will reach Me without fail. I promise this because you are My very dear friend."

Why does Krishna say to Arjuna, "Worship ME"

            Krishna has now again used the first person singular "Me" instead of "Him". The reason is that He knew that Arjuna, after seeing the Universal form and listening to the divine doctrine, would not believe in any God other than Him alone. So Krishna says "Have faith in Me. I am your God." This is a personal advice of a Guru to a disciple who had already surrendered and prayed for enlightenment. To Arjuna, Krishna was God.

            These words of Krishna should not be misunderstood. Some devotees may think that one must worship the form of Krishna only. It is not so. There are millions of people who believe in other forms of God. If you tell a devotee of Rama or Ganesha or Shiva to give up his God and start worshipping Krishna, it will be against Gita teachings. So those of you who worship other forms should not be misled by this direct instruction given by a Guru (Krishna) to his disciple (Arjuna).

What is meant by "Giving up Dharma"?

            Krishna now reveals the secret of all secrets in verse no. 66. He says, "Give up all kinds of Dharma and just surrender to Me. I shall deliver you from all sins. Do not fear."

            This is a very bold statement and must be understood thoroughly. Giving up Dharma should not mean giving up your duties. Arjuna's Dharma as a warrior was to fight. Because he was abandoning it, Krishna rebuked him and said to him "not to act like a coward". If the above secret meant giving up duty, Krishna could have said to Arjuna, "Good, I am glad you want to give up your Dharma-Karma (your Karma according to your Dharma). Now come, let us go far away where you surrender Me and I shall deliver you from bondage." No, it is not so.

            Krishna emphasised the need for everybody to perform one's own duties. When it came to the point of liberation from bondage, He spoke of various ways, again and again stressing the importance of performing Karma in a detached manner. We have learnt about Sankhya yoga, Karmayoga, Buddhiyoga, Atam Samyan Yoga etc. etc. There are people in this world with varying degrees of intelligence, diverse faith and beliefs. Many of them might get confused because they are used to behave in their own fashion and ways, for so many lives, not years. It is difficult to change. A common man, after reading all this may ask "Now what am I supposed to do? Shall I go and find a Guru (master) who can guide me? Or shall I continue my practice of worshipping and do some meditation?" When it comes to put into practice Gita teachings in Kaliyuga, all these questions will arise. Finally, you may say to yourself, "It is nice to know all these things, about God, universe, mind, Karma and so on", and you will continue to do what you do now. Because changing habits of past so many lives and taming the senses or mind is considerably difficult, especially when you are forced to do many activities every day, just to earn a good living and to live comfortably.

            Hence the most confidential secret is, you can carry on your duties the way you do. If you find it difficult to perform your Karma in a detached manner, never mind. You just have faith in God that you worship or pray and surrender to Him in toto. He will liberate you from bondage. He will take care of you both in material and spiritual activities.


            But a word of caution. Understand first what is the meaning of "surrender?" It is already explained above. If you do all your activities, which include your thoughts, speech and action, for God, believing that He is the Master for whom you are working and therefore, you must not do anything which He will not like; at the same time remembering that He resides in the heart of every being, you will be surrendering to Him. So surrender to God and then do not worry about any Yoga or attachment, non attachment, Sanyasa, Tyaga etc. Just one word "Surrender" and perform your duties. What more one can ask for?

            Finally, before ending His discourse, Krishna has said in verses 67 to 71,

"This truth should not be explained to those who lack austerity, who are not devoted, who do not follow any kind of worship ro to those who do not believe in God. He who will explain this to supreme secret to those who are devotees, will have his devotion strengthened in Me and in the end he will come to Me. There is no person in this world more dear to Me than he, nor will there ever be any one more dear. I declare that he who studies this sacred conversation between us, worships Me by way of a Yagnya. He who listens with faith and without envy, becomes free from all sins and he will go to those higher auspicious planets where pious souls dwell."

            Krishna has wound up his discourse here. His caution, not to reveal this knowledge to unfaithful, unwilling, disinterested people is understood. It will be a waste of time for both and the supreme doctrine could become a subject of ridicule among such people. If it so happens, the person,who has taken pains to talk about Gita will be hurt. The end result will not be good. So why bother about such people?

            We must understand also that Krishna admonished Arjuna for acting like a coward but did not advice him. He patiently listened to his excuses for running away from his duty. It was only when Arjuna surrendered to Him and said, "Krishna, I am confused, I cannot decide between right and wrong, I am your disciple, I surrender to you, please tell me what I should do", then Krishna started by saying "Is this right what you are doing?"

Lesson for Kaliyugans

            We should also take a lesson from this, not to give advice, to anybody unless asked for. If you feel that someone dear to you is not doing something right, you can tell him so, but do not tell what he should do. Ask him to see for himself if his action at that time is right. If he comes back to you and says, he is confused and needs advice then you point out to him his mistake and give him advice. But do not tell him to do anything this way or that way. Let him decide. Once you tell him what is right and what is wrong, your duty is over.

Krishna's last words

            In verse no. 72, which is the last one spoken by Krishna, He asks, "O Arjuna have you heard this with concentration and attention? Are your ignorance and illusion now dispelled?"

            Krishna's role in Gita is over with the above verse. He is satisfied that He has given that knowledge to Arjuna which will enable him to use his intellect, and judge what course of action to be taken. Now it is for Arjuna to do his Karma, the way he desires. Krishna is thus not an integral part of Arjun's Karma.

            When you ask somebody to do his Karma in a particular way, which may be the right way, you are getting involved in it. If he succeeds, he may give credit to you, saying "because of you I could achieve what I sought. If he fails, he may say, "I should not have listened to you". In both ways, you become a party to his Karma because, whatever he says, you are bound to brood over it. Your thoughts will be attached to his Karma and etched on the mind. Why do you want to do that? When you are trying to be non attached to your own Karma, what is the point in getting attached to someone else's Karma?

            Remember, Krishna said, "His Karma is Divine. He is not attached to it." On His own He did not get involved in Arjuna's problem. He advised him only when Arjuna pleaded and surrendered. Then Krishna did His duty to give him the advice and finally asked him if he had listened carefully and if his ignorance had gone. He left it to Arjuna to decide the course of action to be taken. No, doubt, during the course of His discourse, he has said to Arjuna "Now get up and fight", several times ; but that was to make him comprehend the importance of performing his Karma. His advice was not finished. When He had finished His duty, He just asked Arjuna if he learnt something.

Arjuna's enlightenment in material world

            In verse no. 73, which is the last one of Arjuna, he replies to Krishna saying,

            "O Krishna, O infallible one, by Your grace my illusion is gone. I have regained my memory. Now I am free from any doubt, and steady. I will act as per your advice."

            Arjuna regained his memory. He had started with great enthusiasm to fight. He wanted to punish the enemy. He knew it was the right Karma. But because of illusion, being too much attached to his relations, he lost his courage and did not want to perform his duty which was right as that time. After listening to Krishna's discourse, his illusion was gone and he remembered why he was there on the battlefield, what was his duty at that time. He assured Krishna that now his mind would not wander. He was firm in his decision and so he will take the right action.

Sanjaya's conclusion

            The conversation between Krishna and Arjuna ends here. In the end, in the last five verses no 74 to 78 Sanjaya winds up the subject. He says,

            "Thus I have heard the conversation of two great personalities, Krishna and Arjuna. This dialogue is so wonderful, it makes my hair stand on end. By the mercy of Vyasa I could hear this most secret dialogue wherein, Krishna the master of all Yogis personally and directly talked to Arjuna. O king, this wonderful conversation comes to my mind again and again. I remember it thus, and I am struck with wonder, more and more, and I experience joy again and again. Wherever, there is Krishna, the Master of all Yogis, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will always be wealth, victory, great power, and morality. It is most certain. This is my firm opinion."

            This is the end of Bhagwad Gita - the song sung by God.

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