Daivasura is a combination of two words viz., Daivi (Divine) and
Asura (Devilish). Sampat means wealth. Vibhaga means Division.
In this chapter Krishna
has divided the various Karmas which a human being performs, into two
kinds (a) Divine and (b) Demonic, and elaborated on them. In the first
four verses He talks about the Divine wealth, thus,
and demoniac qualities
"Freedom from fear,
purity, development of spiritual knowledge, charity, self-control,
performance of sacrifice, study and practice of spiritual literature,
austerity, simplicity, non violence. truthfulness, freedom from anger,
renunciation, peace, aversion from finding faults with others,
compassion for all beings, greedlessness, gentleness, modesty, steady
mind, vigour, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, freedom from envy and
freedom from craving for honour - these are divine qualities and they
belong to the one endowed with divine nature. Pride, arrogance, conceit,
anger, brutality and ignorance - these qualities belong to those born
with demoniac nature."
Each child inherits
certain qualities at birth. They come from past associations with Karma
and desires. A person who has been finding faults with others all his
life, will have this quality in him in next human birth also. All these
good and bad qualites are a result of the past. In general, we inherit a
mixture of them so that we have both divine and demoniac tendencies. It
is upto us to change those qualities which are not good. The good ones
are called Divine because they can take us up on the path of self
realization. If we cannot succeed in our goal, they help us to be reborn
in good surroundings. The other type is called Asuri (demoniac) because
they lay the foundation of next birth in devilish surroundings.
The divine qualities
can deliver us from Karmic bondage, but the demoniac ones tighten the
ropes. Krishna then says to Arjuna in verse no. 5, "Arjuna, you are
born with divine qualities so do not grieve."
Then in verse no. 6
Krishna says, "In this world there are two kinds of beings, one
called divine and the other demoniac. I have told you at length about
the divine qualities, now hear the demoniac ones." Then in verses
nos. 6 to 18 He elaborates them.
Such people do not
understand how to behave in society. There are two ways of doing any
Karma. Each Karma stems from some desire or the other. This desire turns
into a tendency to either put it into action physically or by speech, or
to suppress it for the time being. The first one is known as Pravrutti (getting
out), the second one is called Nivrutti (subduing or suppressing).
You had asked your wife
to do certain important job. It had to be done that day itself. You
telephone her from your office in the afternoon and learn that she
completely forgot about it. You are angry. you come home in angry mood.
You want to give your wife a piece of your mind. When you are home, you
find that she has two of her old friends, sitting with her. You know
them. Now you have two ways of action, either to scold her for her
forgetfulness in front of her two friends or leave the matter unactioned
for the time being, and talk to her later when you are alone with her.
Your action will depend upon what quality of a person you are. The
demoniac one will just blurt out and scold her without thinking if it is
right or wrong to do so at that time. He will not know when to act, when
not to act.
of a person with demoniac qualities
These people have no
regard for cleanliness, proper behaviour nor they care for truth. If
there is dirt or dust gathered on the floor they will not bother to
clean. In the house of such a person you may find many things lying here
and there. He may not have respect for others in the sense that he will
lack mannerisms. He will easily tell a lie and will doubt the truth in
They do not believe in
God. They say that it is not true that this world was created by anybody.
Nobody controls the world and it has no foundation at all. Beings have
desire for sex which makes them work. Everything works because of lust.
There is no hand of God anywhere. These people obviously do not have any
regard for feelings of others. They can commit blunders. "So what!"
they will say. Their motto is to enjoy while you live. Once you die,
everything is over. In their opinion, all talk of Atma and Parmatma is
foolish. Because of such thoughts they are lost to themselves. Their
intellect rots; they do not use it. Mind rules them and senses guide
them. They are ever ready to do nasty acts which cause destruction and
harm to others. They never think of humanity or the world at large. Self
interest is the only thing they know. The dominant guna in them is Tama.
It never allows the Sattwa to come up. They love animal meat. They like
to see chaos, anarchy and problems created. They are happy with riots,
commotion and anything else that breaks general peace.
They take refuge in
lust. All their actions are based and guided by lust. Hence they have
conceit and pride which can be seen in their behaviour. They get
disillusioned by what their senses perceive. If somebody says something,
they will not stop to think whether it is true or not. They are very
easily excited and are liable to be tempted by small pleasures. They do
not care for lasting values. Any sensual gratification, however
temporary it may be, will attract them and they will go to any length to
Such a person can
easily attack a woman. He will not hesitate to steal anything from a
friend's house, if his mind is set on that thing. All this is a result
of poor intellect and high indulgence in senses. The main cause is the
Tama guna dominating all the time. They believe that human life is
gratifying senses only. Because of this thought ruling them, they are
never at peace. They are always lost in anxiety. Such a person is
absessed with lust and is surrounded internally by hundreds of thousands
of desires. Some of them cannot be fulfilled. So he gets angry and tries
to find out whatever he needs to gratify these desires. Securing money
by illegal means is not a bad thought to him.
You see many such
people in your society. You read in newspapers about incidents of rape,
robbery for small gain, treachery and so on. In fact now a days this
type of news predominates. We say crime is on the increase. This is
because of people with demoniac tendencies. This is Kaliyuga. This is
just the beginning. You may not be one of this type but you have to live
with these people. What would happen after hundred years, thousand or
ten thousand years. Will the things improve? Doubtful, is it not? They
may become worse and worse. Do you want to be born again and again and
again? Think it over and decide. Your destiny is in your hands.
They always brag about
their illegal gains and achievements. "Today I got this, tomorrow I
will get that. I am so much worth, I will have so much more in course of
time," - these thoughts rule them.
In today's society we
find many such people, not only in lower classes but also in the upper
ones. People with high degree of intelligence easily fall victims to
their own desires. When desires dominate life, and intellect follows the
mind, corruption sets in. The person becomes diseased from within.
Politicians, with a desire to be on the top, lose moral values. They
show scanty respect to the masses. Accumulating money illegally and by
doing wrong things becomes a matter of routine for them. People who have
power, find ways to get more money. Whatever wealth they have, does not
satisfy their lust, because desires can never be satisfied.
Such people are not
ashamed to kill others. We read in newspapers of moneyed people paying
hundreds of thousands of rupees to some crime loving person just to kill
a rival or a competitor. Astonishing fact, however, is that these people
are not afraid of society or the laws. They know they can use their
money to silence those in authority. There is always a rat race for
accumulating wealth, gaining power and prestige, and being in the
limelight. Such people always boast "I am the greatest, I can do
and undo things. I am satisfied and happy. I am God because my word is a
command to everybody." "There is nobody so powerful and happy
as I am. I shall perform sacrifices, give some money for charity and
thus I shall rejoice." In this way these persons live in ignorance.
old truth seen in Kaliyuga
It is interesting to
note that Krishna spoke to Arjuna more than five thousands years ago of
things which we see actually happening in the world today. It is these
people who do more damage to the world. Yet they think they are
benevolent. They live in a delusion that their acts are for the good of
the people. If that was so, we would not see majority people struggling
to make both ends meet in underdeveloped and developing countries while
a small section of society enjoys.
Such a person's mind is
always clouded by various anxieties and bound by a net of illusions.
Always interested in sense enjoyment, he goes to hell, after death. It
is very well known that desires, when not fulfilled, produce anger and,
therefore, loss of peace. The mind remains always anxious. So imagine
when a person is all the time thinking of gratifying senses, what will
happen. Such a person will be restless and he may do any rash act when
his desire does not get satiated.
Somebody owes you some
money. He is your friend who borrowed from you when he needed it. He
promised to pay you back in two months time. It is six months now, still
he has not paid. Every time you ask, he gives you a date. This is going
on for four months, If you are a person with demoniac qualities, you may
go to his house and create a scene in front of neighbours, insisting on
immediate payment. You may beat him. Because your desire to get your
money back is so powerful that you just cannot let it lie down low. You
want action. You will not think rationally or find some honourable way
to deal with the situation. This is the result of demoniac nature.
Such people amass
wealth by unfair means. Then they feel that something must be done for
the good of others. They proudly perform sacrifices but do not follow
any rules. They want to be known as pious people. They think that
performing yagnyas or giving charity or donations to religious
institutions will earn them prestige.
They always have false
ego. They have the strength and power of money to back them. They are
aware that in general, people are always in need of money. These people
have tons of it. So they can use that money power, and get their jobs
done. They have pride, lust and anger. They criticise and talk ill of
others. In this way they insult the Atma in them as well as in others.
Abusing those who do not follow them or do not listen to them, is their
nature. They perform seemingly religious work, like spending money in
big religious festivals or giving donations to build houses of God. But
they trample the real religion,which is human religion.
These people do not
realise that God exists in all beings. Hurting others is hurting God.
Killing others for the sake of monetary gain; destroying an individual
or a family just to acquire some piece of land; making many families
homeless by forcing them out from their residence, just to buy the land
and build shopping complex, all these acts are against God. They are
against religion. Even if you give hundreds of thousands of rupees or
dollars to build a Mandir or a Church, out of the money earned by such
blasphemous deeds, you are not a religious person. You are an enemy of
God and of yourself. Your place is nowhere else but hell, after death.
happens to demoniac people?
In verses nos. 19 and
20, Krishna, tells us about the fate of these people. He says,
"Such people who are by nature envious, cruel killers, the lowest
among humans, I throw them into the world in various demoniac species of
life. They are born in those species again and again but they never come
to Me. Gradually they sink down to the most abominable type of
Krishna has dealt with
the demoniac qualities in greater details in this chapter. In the
beginning He said he was going to tell about His divine wealth and
demoniac wealth. The word wealth may be confusing. By wealth we
understand lot of money. There are two types of wealth, one gained by
honest means which is divine. The other is acquired by dishonest and
cruel means. This is the demoniac wealth.
In this world of ours,
money makes the mare go. Money is required for everything. In whatever
currency form it may appear, without it you cannot survive. you may need
little money for survival, a little extra to have a comfortable living.
But you need lots of it to enjoy sense pleasures and gratify desires.
Some people are fortunately placed in a position where they can earn lot
of money and lead a luxurious life. The business they do is honourable.
They do not resort to killings, cheating or dishonest means.
But there are others
who are born with the characteristics or qualities like unsatiable lust,
greed, dishonesty, coruelty etc. When they wish to gratify every sense
desire, they need lot of money. But their profession in which they are
engaged, does not yield that kind of money. So they resort to dishonest
The word wealth,
therefore, is to be taken in that sense. People with divine qualities
have nothing to worry about the life after death, in this life. They
will follow the cycle of birth and death and stand a chance to come out
of it. But those born with and indulge in demoniac qualities are
unfortunate. They go to hell and have no escape.
This chapter is mainly
for people who run after amassing wealth to satisfy their lust and who
employ dishonourable and cruel means as mentioned in details above.
is not lost
Even though they may be
born with some bad qualities, they can mend their ways. They may not
believe in God but if they read this chapter again and again, some of
them may fear the worse and try to change. They must remember that
Krishna has said, "even the worst kind of sinner can reach Him,
provided he repents and sincerely desires to be pardoned. But if he does
not, and dies in this world with all those bad, inhuman qualities stuck
permanently in his mind, and if he has behaved in really inhumanly and
barbaric manner, then there is no other way for him than to go to hell
and rot there.
gates of hell - lust, gread, anger
In verses nos. 21 to 23
Krishna says, "There are three gates leading to hell. They are
lust, anger and greed. They destroy a person. Hence everybody should
give them up. He who remains away from them, performs Karmas conducive
to self realisation. He reaches the supreme destination. He who discards
laws of spiritual studies and behaves according his own whims does, not
attain perfection, nor happiness nor does he reach the supreme
It is very important
for us to know which ways are dangerous. Suppose you send your 10 year
son on a vacation trip, along with his schoolmates and teacher. You know
the place where the students are going. So you tell your son, "look
son, do not go inside the lake, stay away from the tip of the cliff and
never thrust your hand in a whole in the ground." You know the
dangers lurking there. You don't feel it is necessary to tell him,
"do not jump, do not run fast or you may fall" etc. After all,
your son has to enjoy life. He may stumble and fall while running. But
he will get over it. If he gets minor injuries, he may be distressed but
no harm will be done. Yet if he attempts to do, what you have told him
not to do, it may cost him his life. It is easy for your son to remember
what he must not do. He will stay away from the pond, the cliff and
wholes in the ground.
In the same way Krishna
is telling us, His children in Kaliyuga, to stay away from three things
which are likely to ruin us totally. He has told us the divine qualities
which, if we have or acquire, we will benefit from them anyhow. There is
no need to elaborate more on them. It is sufficient for us to know that
those are good qualities and will always bring us some good. But we must
stay away from bad ones and certainly discard those ones which are sure
to destruct us.
Hence, these three,
lust anger and greed, must be avoided. Lust is totally destructive.
Anger also does not do any good but when you live in this world, you
cannot dispense with it totally. Anger rests in desire. And desires are
necessary for performing Karmas. You own a new car, a brand new TV and
other things. They are yours. You have bought them with your hard-earned
money. Suppose a friend of yours comes to you and says, "O' what a
nice TV. The reception is fantastic; and so many channels! Waw! I am
taking it." He starts packing it.
You laugh at him and
say, "don't joke, sit down." But he does not listen. You
realise that he means what he has said. At this time if there is no
anger in you, what will happen? You cannot obstruct him. He will take
your TV. Take another example. You are leisurely having an evening walk
with your wife. A passer by comes near and starts making passes at her.
You do not get angry. He is happy. He comes near, holds her hand. You
are still not angry because you have
discarded anger. What will happen? Your wife is scared. He will hold her
in his arms, try to molest her. You are still calm. Is this right?
Never. So anger is required. But we must understand that it is
dangerous. A person with divine qualities will not become mad with
anger. He will take necessary action and fight the passer-by. But a
person with demoniac quality will become insane and even kill the man.
Hence anger, in the mind of such a person is dangerous.
Greed also is
dangerous. It can lead a person to do unjust acts including killing. We
all can live without greed. It is no good. It is a pitfall which will
take us down the pit, where, there may
not be a way to come up.
out for people in Kaliyuga
It is for us now, to
examine our hearts and minds to see where we stand. Many of us have some
divine and some demoniac qualities in various degrees. That is one
reason why we are never contented. In spite of having all the
necessities of life, we seem to
be dwelling in anxiety. The reason is, the presence of some demoniac
qualities, though in very negligible amount.
If you aspire for
peace, happiness and to come out of the cycle of birth and death, you
have to increase the content of divine qualities and reduce the demomiac
ones. You have still a chance to reach your goal, if not in this, may be
in some future life. But you must stay away from lust, greed and
excessive unjustified anger, if you do not want to go to hell. These are
permanent rules applicable everywhere, at all times. Hence they are said
to be part of spiritual practices. They cannot go wrong. We are told
that you follow these paths which are dangerous, and you will be lost
for ever. Nobody, not even God can save you. So why taste the bitter
fruit, when we know it is posion?
In the last verse no.
24 of this chapter, Krishna says, "Arjuna, one should therefore
understand what is right and what is wrong according to accepted
scriptures, and take those actions which are right. I have told you
everything. Now you should see what is right as per your Dharma and take
Thus ends the 16th
chapter of Gita. We have to understand that in the end, everything boils
down to one question, which Krishna has asked Arjuna in the beginning.
"Is this right what you are doing at this time?" Arjuna's
behaviour at that time was not according to Dharma. His Dharma was to
fight. But he was running away from it.
What lesson should we
take from this chapter? We must inspect our mind to see what qualities
we have, and if any of them prevents us from doing what we must do at
any given time. Usually, it is the bad quality which stops us from
taking wrong action. We must check it and not succumb to the mind.
Sometimes, the desire
to do a wrong act is so strong that before we know, the mind overpowers
intellect and we take the action. In such circumstances, at least, make
sure that your wrong action is not as a result of lust, greed or
unjustified anger. If it is, stop it. You are unknowingly walking