Nirdesha Yoga or Kshetra-Kshetradnya Yoga
Prakruti means God's active energy. Purusha means God. Nirdesha
means description. In this chapter comprising of 34 verses, we learn the
relationship between God and His Prakruti. We are familiar with the
terms God and Prakruti. Krishna has talked about two other terms here,
Kshetra and Kshetradnya. Kshetra means field. Kurukshetra was a field of
Kurus. It became a battle field. One who knows the field is called
Kshetradnya. In the first verse of this chapter Krishna says, "This
body is called Kshetra and one who knows it, is called Kshetradnya."
Now we have two sets of
terms, viz., Prakruti and Purusha, Kshetra and Kshetradnya. Prakruti is
God's creation. Purusha is God who knows the creation. Kshetra is your
own body and Kshetradnya is one who knows everything about it. Purusha
is masculine, Prakruti is feminine. Among human beings also, the
masculine gender man is known as Purusha and the feminine gender woman
is called Prakruti. Both together are responsible for procreation.
In a field, we
cultivate vegetables, rice, corn etc. One who owns and knows the field
is a farmer. He may have many fields and he may engage different tillers
to work in the field. In this body of ours, there is a tiller who
remains in it till the time that this body is worth tilling. Once it
becomes useless he leaves. He goes to another body with all his acquired
In verse no. 2 we are
told, The khestradnya in each field i.e. the tiller in each body is God
Himself; and the knowledge of the body and Him is called Dnyan. Senses
form parts of the body. Through them we get knowledge of the world but
how to get to know them as well as mind, intellect and ego. They all go
to form the body. Then there is the tiller or God inside. How to know
Him? One who knows them all is a Dnyani. God, as we know now, is unimaginably great. He is one. So how can He be the
Kshetradnya in each living being? We know answer to this question also.
God's own tiny called replica Atma lives in the body. We could say that
this Atma (who in realy is God) is the tiller and God, who has in his
command all bodies, is the farmer.
Now we have to try and
understand the Kshetra as well as the Kshetradnya. Many sages have
talked in detail with full logical assumptions about these two entities.
Vedas also give detailed account of them. In verses no. 5 and 6 Krishna
tells us, "The five great elements, ego, intellect, the
unmanifested, eleven Indriyas (10 senses and 1 mind) and the five types
of sense objects together from the Kshetra. In this Kshetra there are
other subtle entities such as Vasana, hatred, happiness, distress, life
symptom and conviction. All together are considered to be the field of
activities and its interactions."
We know what the five
great elements are. A fraction of all of them combine to form the gross
body, the visible kshetra. The eleven Indriyas are, five of knowledge (sight,
hearing, smell, touch and taste), 5 of action (hands, legs, voice, anus,
and genitals), and the remaining one is their Master, the mind. The five
sense objects are form, sound, smell, touch and taste. Then there are
the ego, intellect and the unmanifested stage of three modes of nature.
These twenty-four elements together constitute the field of activity.
Then we have vasanas, hatred, happiness, distress which are interactions.
They interact with gross body. The living symptom is represented by
consciousness. While, convictions are manifestations of subtle body -
mind, intellect and ego.
The body is subject to
changes. Since the time it is born, till it dies, it undergoes six
stages. (i) birth, when the gross body comes into world, (ii) growth,
when it starts growing in size and form externally and internally, (iii)
stationery state, when there is no more growth, (iv) production, when it
produces by-products, (v) decaying, when it starts downward march
wherein body functions become weaker and weaker, degeneration of tissues
occurs, and last is (vi) death when everything is over.
If Brahmadev was to
create bodies and leave them in the universe, they would certainly
undergo the six changes above but they would not be reborn. The bodies
would not do anything. Even, in order for these changes to take place,
some incentive and action is necessary. This is provided by Vasana which
constantly produces desires. They are activated by the senses which are
stimulated by their respective objects. All senses have a chief, the
mind which interacts with desires and sense objects. Intellect gets in
touch with the consciousness and in order that the desire remains active,
the three gunas which are initially in unmanifested stage, take action.
Living beings get to move. Whether a body is running, or sitting quietly
in a chair, or lying down on a bed, the subtle elements remain active.
Action takes place. Karma is performed. Each Karma, together with its
basic desire and its mode of operation, is permanently etched on mind's
big screen. Laws of Karma do the evaluation and Prakruti gets ready to
send that being back in the cycle of birth and death.
Kshetra is, thus, not
only the gross body as we see. The physical body has no value. It is
made up of dust, water, heat, wind and space. It is like a house. It has
no meaning unless it is decorated and somebody is there to live in it
and look after. So the subtle elements do the decoration and Atma
resides. It is unfortunate that we give most of our attention to this
house but pay very little attention to the mind, intellect and ego. We
never seem to give a serious thought
to the six changes this body is subjected to. Let us take an arbitrary
example. If we consider the average life of a human being say 80 years,
then its peak point would be somewhere between 40 and 50. After that it
would start downward journey. Its strength would go on diminishing and
after 60 it would start degenerating. Of course, this is only an example.
Climate, food, surrounding atmosphere do affect these factors yet the
fact remains that one day the body will have to go. The mind will remain
and the new body acquired will depend upon what is in the mind. It will
have all your Karma, all the unfulfilled desires, unburnt vasanas, and
other subtle entities. They will be the deciding factor in the allotment
of another body to you. So why not do something about your mind now,
before it is too late?
Remove all hatred and
ill feelings. Let the mind be healthy, free of all diseases and let
there be fewer vasanas and no unfulfilled desires. Try and put every
right desire into action, complete it and let it out of your system. Try
from now so that when the time comes to leave this world, your mind is
as much light as possible. If it is heavy it will affect you very much.
This is the reason you must know your Kshetra completely. You must know
what is going on in it. I would give my sincere advice to those young
beautiful damsels, who care so much for their bodies, not to overlook
these facts. Do take care of your face, arms, legs etc. to look more
attractive, charming and beautiful but let this beauty also reflect in
the Kshetra. Let it be seen right in its innermost part. This is in your
own interest. Your enemy in this regard is jealousy, envy, wrong desires,
hatred and dislikes. Think about that.
All of us must realize
that, even though we are far away from selfrealization, and we are
conscious of our body for the better part of life, we are not physical
body only. The Kshetra is much bigger. A farmer's field without any crop
is no good. If he cultivates vegetables and other crops, it will look
nice. On the contrary, if he leaves it unattended, it will gather
rubbish and even passing animals would urinate and shit there. Do you
want this to happen in your Kshetra? Of course not. Think about it and
take action. You must know your Kshetra thoroughly. God has said you
must have knowledge of both the Kshetra and the Kshetradnya.
Besides the subtle
entities mentioned above, there are others. Knowing and practising them
in daily life amounts to living to be a Dnyani. These are humility,
absence of pride, non violence, tolerance, simplicity, serving your
teacher, purity, stability, self control, disinterest in sense pleasures,
eviction of ego; perception of the evils of birth, death, old age,
disease and distress; detachment from association with wife, children,
home etc. always equipoised mind in good and bad circumstances;
undiluted devotion to God; love for living in a secluded place in
solitude; disinterest in living with the masses, constancy in spiritual
studies and practice; zeal for philosophical knowledge - all these
amount to be attributes of Dnyana. Apart from this, whatever remains in
Once you know your
Kshetra (body) and become aware of the importance to keep it beautiful
from outside as well as inside, you must pay attention to know who this
Kshetradnya is. In day to day life we are subjected to a variety of
emotions, all springing mainly from various desires. When you succumb to
your desires, your way to know Kshetradnya is blocked. So you have to
cultivate and practise the virtues described above. It will not be easy
but what else is easy in life? Is happiness easily found? Is peace of
mind easy to obtain? Is it
easy to get what you want in life? Everything seems to be so difficult.
The irony is that, in spite of successfully fighting out the
difficulties, you do not get happiness, nor peace and the joy is lost.
This is the beaten path. Why not take a walk on the other path which is
always open to you. It is not crowded. At least make a start and walk a
few paces. Stay there for a while and see for yourself how you feel.
To make a start, be
humble. Avoid temptation to show off, or blow your own trumpet. Stop
craving attention. If you are at a party, do enjoy mixing with others
but with a change. Make others talk and you listen, observing silence.
Take interest in others instead of trying to draw their attention to you.
Finally, when you are through with the party, drop the party from your
mind. I think, this action should be enough to begin with. If you feel
good, better than being on the beaten path, continue. In course of time
you will know everything there is to know, to become a Dnyani. The first
path leads you into a mire of ignorance where there is nothing but
darkness and sorrow. On this path there is always light and joy. This is
Now we have to
understand, what is knowable. The difficulty here is that this knowable
cannot be known by the senses. Let us take an example in material life.
You are a pop singer. You do have good and sound knowledge of this type
of music. There is a concert of Michael Jackson in town. You have got a
ticket. You attend the show and are thrilled to listen to him. You have
seen him in action, heard him in person, observed his style, mannerisms
and acquired knowledge. Now you want to know what is it that makes him
number one in the world. You can imitate his style, mannerisms, accent
and everything else still you know you will be nowhere near him. There
is something in him, something about him which makes him different. You
can know it only when you become Michael Jackson.
In the same way, to
know the knowable you have to become the knowable yourself. What is this
knowable? This is that, which, when known, liberates you from Karmic
bondage. It has no beginning, no end. It is the greatest and superior to
all. It is said to be real as well as unreal (because human knowledge of
anything is conditioned by the capacity of the senses and the mind). Yet
it is there and will be there always. This is called Brahma. It pervades
the field. Even though each individual Atma looks after the body, Brahma
is the real Master. All Atmas owe allegiance to Brahma. We have to
understand first that this knowable, which is unknowable to the body and
mind, is everywhere. This is God, so God is within us. If that is so,
how can we be callous and negligent in internal parts of our field. We
must do a thorough cleaning of them. You may spend two hours and have a
good bath with perfumed soap and shampoos but do you spend even two
minutes to clean yourself from inside? That Brahma or God is there all
the time. We must make an attempt to know Him.
We have seen before,
how God appeared to Arjuna in Universal form. This is what is knowable.
He has hands and legs everywhere. His eyes, heads, ears are everywhere.
In this way He exists and pervades everything. It is only because He,
the knowable, is unknowable to the subtle parts of body that we do not
see Him or feel Him. Otherwise, at this very moment, he is next to you,
on your sofa or chair on which you are sitting. His body touches yours.
He is aware of your existence but you don't feel Him. He hears every
word you speak, sees every gesture you make but you can't. He exists
inside you and knows what goes on in your mind. Terrible, is it not? Can
you still afford to have feelings of hatred, envy, jealousy; thoughts of
treachery, cheating, dishonesty etc.?
In reality He is
unmanifested. He has no form, no organs. Yet He exists in universal form.
He takes interest in His creation and so it moves on and on. We also
have a lot of interest in our own life. We take many actions so that
life may be easy and good for us. All our actions get rewarded. His
actions do not. His creation is out of His desire to multiply and
magnify in various individual forms. But He is not attached to it,
whereas we are.
The knowable is inside
as well as outside of all beings. It is still, yet it moves. It is so
subtle hence it is beyond the power of senses. It is too far as well as
too near. Since this Brahma pervades everything, it is everywhere. The
talk of it being inside and outside is actually meaningless. This
distinction is caused because of endless individual small and big forms
created by Prakruti in the Universe. When we talk about God being too
far and too near at the same time, what we understand is His existence.
How far away can you stretch your imagination? Scientists have found
some new galaxies billions of light years away. This is too far. But all
that exists in the universe is just a fraction of His existence and all
within Him, He is even beyond that distance. How much beyond? Beyond
imagination. So we know how far He is. Yet He is so near. He is very
close. How much? Does He touch the body? Yes, He does, yet He is still
close. In the body we have the senses beyond which there is the mind.
Beyond mind is the intellect and beyond intellect is Atma. Atma is you
yourself. Well, He is beyond Atma, closer than you can imagine. Because
Atma is nothing else but a fraction of Him. So He is too far and at the
same time too near.
He is undivided yet
appears divided. He maintains all living beings yet He devours and
creates them also. We have seen before that space pervades everything.
It is undivided yet it appears divided. e.g. If you have five pots lined
up in a row on a street, you will see some space separately inside each
pot. You can see space outside them. In this way the large open space
appears differently and not united. You break the pots, you see that the
space that was within them and the space outside them is really one.
Similarly, each individual being has God inside as well as outside in
one unmanifested existence. If the entire Universe is gone, He will
still remain, as He was and as He is. In the beginning there was no
universe. He created it. He maintains it and ultimately, it will merge
into Him. Hence it is only one God who appears to perform the three
He is the source of
light in all luminous bodies. He is beyond darkness and is unmanifested.
He is Dnyana. He is the object of Dnyana and He is the goal of Dnyana.
He is situated in the heart of all beings. It means the knowable is to
be known by Him and knowing Him is the ultimate goal. If He is to be
known, you have to be Him, or in other words your existence in a living
body must cease, never to be born again. When your body disappears and
you do not have bonds of the three gunas and vasanas tied around you,
then you are free. In that free condition where and how will you live?
You will live in Him, not separate from Him. Now you need your senses
and mind to know anything. But then you will be everything.
In old days, there were
kings and their subjects. If anyone wanted anything, the highest authority to approach was
the king. If you were one of the subjects and if you needed something
which the king's deputies were unable to give, you went to the king. But
if you were yourself to become a king then there was nothing for you to
be asked for. Everything in the kingdom was yours. You just wished and
your wish was granted. In the same way once you are free and you become
the knowable yourself, then you are God. What would you want then? You
won't have any desires like you have now.
So we have seen what is
Kshetra, Kshetradnya, Dnyana and Adnyana (ignorance). We know now what
is God in greater details. Krishna has declared in verse no. 18 that His
devotee who understands this thoroughly, goes to Him.
Since God is
beginningless and since He pervades the Universe with His
Prakruti, the latter also is without any beginning. It was always there
with Him. Only the universe with all its beings has a beginning and an
end. He is no different from Prakruti. As God or as Purusha He maintains
His unmanifested existence. As Prakruti, He begins His endless
manifestations. He begets His vibhutis and they create and maintain the
universe. Finally, when it is time to wind up everything, He in the form
of destroyer vibhuti, will put an end to the world. As Prakruti He will
swallow everything and finally withdraw it in Him, remaining in
unmanifested existence. Once the Prakruti gets into action and Universe
is created, the game starts. Gross bodies composed of the five great
elements, the subtle bodies like the senses, mind, intellect, ego etc.
and the sense objects which are spread throughout the universe in
various forms start interacting with each other. Their action is
prompted and caused by the
three gunas, and their effects like delusion, happiness and sorrow. All
these are generated from Prakruti. Thus His Prakruti is said to be the
cause of all all causes and effects in the material world, while He, the
Purusha is the enjoyer of the effects like various sufferings and
pleasures in the world.
Even though the Purusha
is a free entity and Prakruti is not free, the former is attached to the
latter in manifestations. The living beings undergo the birth - death
cycle because of Karma. Prakruti is responsible to give the Karma-bound
Purusha one of the 8.400.000 species of animal bodies, (including human)
according to each one's Karma. The Purusha is thus confined to the given
body till the time comes for it to be dispensed with. In this way, the
Purusha is trapped and He, being the one having capacity to feel and
know, is the enjoyer or all suffering and pleasures that the Prakruti
creates. Thus, there is always an interaction between these two.
The Purusha lives with
the Prakruti, when he is in bondage and enjoys what body experiences,
under the influence of the three gunas which are the working tools of
Prakruti. Once the Purusha is bound by Karma, He has no other choice but
to go to that being which the Prakruti decides for Him. And once He is
thus reborn with His Prarabdha Karma, he has no choice but to live in
that body till the Karma is over. Yet in human body He has the right,
the only right to do Karma. It is upto Him how to do it. He could attach
himself to all that is being caused by Prakruti gunas, and thus feel
that He is the door, or recognise His association with God, the
unmanifested, and remain non attached to every action. In the first case
He does not come out of bondage. In the second one He becomes free and
in unmanifested state goes and merges with God.
In the body which
becomes a sort of cage to the Purusha, there is yet another being
superior to Him. That one is just a witness or an overseer and the one
who permits this Purusha - Prakruti marriage. That one is called
Parama-Purusha. He is the great one of whom the Purusha is a part. That
one is unknowable by senses. Sages said about Him thus, "Thou art
That". What that "That" is, nobody knows. In other words
the bonded Purusha is Atma while the great overseer is Param-Atma.
Devotees sometimes use two other terms for them. They call the bonded
one as Jiva and the free one as Shiva. This Parama-purusha is the real
master, real enjoyer. He is all in all. The Prakruti is His plaything.
Krishna says in verse
no 23, "He who understands this principle and factual status of the
Purusha and the Prakruti along with its features and the interaction of
them, is sure to attain liberation. Regardless of how he lives in this
life, he will not be born again."
In my school and
collage days, I knew of two methods of learning a subject. One was to
make a deep study, think, get experience and get knowledge in my own
system so that it remained there permanently. The other was to byheart
the lines to be able to give correct answers in the examination and thus
get good marks. Anything learnt by this second method remained
temporarily. It could not reach the deep quarters of the mind.
If you adopt this
second method to know what Krishna has said, that knowledge will be
wiped away. It will not liberate you. But if you follow the first method
and make efforts to understand Purusha, Prakruti, their interaction, the
laws of Karma and bondage, the position of Panama-Purusha in all these,
and succeed in turning your mind away from the influences of the three
gunas and the senses, you are on the right way. No matter what you are,
what you have done, how much you have sinned, you will be liberated.
Now that you know about
God and yourself, you can practise any one of the methods covered in
earlier chapters to be on the correct path. Many people practise
meditation. They try to turn away the senses from their objects, then
try to turn the mind inwards, away from senses and concentrate on the
thought of God. Their efforts are to see the Parama-purusha inside,
within the body. Chapter 6 on self restrain Yoga for Karmayogis,
explains this method, however, it has been mentioned there, that it is
for Karma yogis who are already living in a detached way. For a common
man, interested in, worldly pleasures, it is extremely difficult. Yet,
with a strong determination and dedication anything can be achieved.
Those who want to undertake this method should take guidance from
somebody who is experienced and advanced in spiritual enlightenment.
Otherwise, your efforts may go in vain.
Some people follow
Sankhyayoga or the path of Dnyana. It requires high degree of
intelligence. You have to think and think deep, analysing all actions
and determining what caused them, why and how they were performed, where
from the desire came, why does it not die, who in the body really enjoys
or suffers etc. etc. In life we are always conscious of body and mind.
This is called body consciousness. It must be replaced by Atma
consciousness. In your process of analysing your actions, you have to,
slowly and slowly, get away from body consciousness. You start saying to
yourself and realising in reality "I an not my hands, nor feet, nor
eyes, nor any sense organs. I am not the mind, nor intellect, nor ego.
Then who am I?" You proceed in this way and finally get to know who
you really are. Not an easy path to follow. Many questions arise. You
need to get them answersed by a Master.
The third path is
Karmayoga which means doing every Karma in the right way and in a
detached manner. Many people follow this path. This is comparatively
easy. It becomes easier still when you adopt some other means to turn
your mind to God. These means are daily worship, prayers, visit to a
holy place etc. When you undertake this path, you do not require high
intelligence. But you must have faith. Devotion based on strong faith
can turn a criminal or a sinner of the worst kind into a Yogi.
All the above paths
have been discussed before. They are mentioned here to lay emphasis on
the point in verse no. 23. Follow any of these paths and get to know the
Purusha, Prakruti, their interaction etc. etc. You are sure to be
liberated in this very life. In this world full of people with varying
degrees of understanding, grasping power and intelligence, it is also
possible that there may be some people who would find it difficult to
understand what is meditation and what are Yogas. If they try to listen
to Masters on their discourses on such subject, they will get baffled.
If they try to read, they may not understand. What should they do?
for a Guru
Krishna stays in verse
no. 25, that such people should have faith in a Master and do what he
says. Their faith and actions taken, under the guidance of a Master will
enable them to reach the goal"
In this, we see a relationship between a Master and a disciple.
There are examples galore in history that disciples who have served
their Master, also have achieved their goal. It is the grace of the
Master which counts. If you find it difficult to undertake any of the
paths mentioned before, you can start worshipping God. Hold an ardent
desire to be near Him. He will direct you to the proper Master. Then
onwards, obey what the Master (Guru) says with a strong faith in him.
But a point of caution to be noted. Do not go in search of a Guru. You
may be disillusioned. There are many Gurus ready to take disciples in
their camp. Do not crave for a Mantra. You can simply chant the name of
God as you like it. Read His stories, participate in bhajans and sing
His hymns. One day you will surely meet your Master.
All the beings in the
world, whether moving or non moving are born out of Prakruti and
Purusha. It is a simple logic. All living beings are born in embryo
state when the male and female bodies come together. Purusha is male and
Prakruti is female. Their combination gives rise to the Universe and all
beings in the universe are born out of them. And while the living being
has a limited physical existence in the given form on earth, the death
occurs of not the whole being. That part of Prakruti which is
responsible for the gross body, dies. This part is the combination of
five gross elements. The other part which is the subtle one, stays
behind with the Purusha who does not die at all. He who realises this,
of Prakruti through Gunas
If you can bring
yourself up to see the presence of God in every living being, it is not
likely that you will let yourself be degraded in any way. Then you
automatically are on the path to reach higher goal. In all our reactions
to outward stimuli, the major party is ego, which is supported by desire
and influenced by the respective guna, dominant at that time.
You are sitting in your
living room. You like music so you have your music system on, and you
are enjoying it. After a while you hear some voices outside your house.
You get up and look out. You observe that four young boys are standing
on the pavement, just outside the gate and arguing. You leave them alone
and return to your seat. Now they are talking louder than before. You
are disturbed. Your desire to listen quietly, the music that is on, is
obstructed. Your ego is stirred. It says, "Who are these boys? Why
should they stand in front of my house and talk so loudly? They could go
elsewhere". The "Raja" guna is dominant and
"Tama" is very close to it. You are compelled to take some
action. You get up, come out near the gate and blurt out, "Listen
boys, if you want to shout, go somewhere else. But do not stand in front
of my house. Now go, get lost."
"Tama" have done their job, ego is satisfied. But your
"Tama" guna is passed on to the minds of those boys through
the sense of hearing. One of them has his "Tama" guna, riding
high at that time. It gets stronger. His ego tells him "who is this
man to talk to you in this manner? Give him back." He retorts,
"Is this your father's property? We are not inside the gate. We are
standing on the pavement now old man, you get lost".
You get offended. There
may be heated arguments but ultimately you return and consume lot of
your energy in nursing anger. You can't enjoy the music. All this
happens because of your ego, desire and the Gunas. Suppose, you Sattwa
guna was dominant at that time , you will speak to them differently. May
be like this: "Hallo boys. Why are you standing on the pavement and
talking? Come in side. I will get you chairs. You will be more
comfortable in the courtyard of my premises. Its okay, come on."
The force and power of your Sattwa guna will quieten the
"Tama" in the other man, and he is very likely to say,
"Thank you, Sir, we are just leaving. Thanks." They will walk
The point is that if
you had seen the presence
of God in those boys, you would not have been led by the Prakruti. Your
words would portray superiority and greatness of your mind. Without your
awareness you go one step ahead in your path of self realisation. It
must be understood that all actions, whether physical, mental,
intellectual or else, are caused by Prakruti. He who understands this
and considers himself a silent witness but not an active party to the
Karma, knows what is real and what is unreal. Soul or Atma i.e. You
yourself, a part of God do nothing. It is your involvement and slavery
to your own Prakruti which makes you think that you are the doer.
When you are able to
realise that all living beings are God's own manifestations in the form
of Purusha and Prakruti combination; and you are one of them, you
attitude towards others changes. You begin to realise that everything
that you see, hear, smell, touch and taste is just God's expanded
Prakruti. When this realisation is dawned, you marvel at His creation,
bow to Him in silence and come to know the insignificance of your own
existence. Yet you feel happy that you are part of Him and you train
yourself to participate in His game joyfully, without letting any events
affect you. You are on your way to God realisation.
The Parama-purusha is a
permanent entity. He has no beginning. Those, who realise this and are
able to comprehend His omnipresence, are fortunate. See Him as not
affected by the three gunas. You, the Atma get affected because you are
combined with Prakruti and are under the influence of its power. But
Paramatma is aloof from all this. He is in your body as a witness only.
He does not get entangled by the Karma, nor does he do anything. It is
you, the Purusha, who must realise this and remember your ties with the
Parama-purusha. But you are already tied with Prakruti. That is your own
doing. Your state of misery and bondage is caused by you and nobody
else. If you want to get out of it and enjoy real happiness turn to the
Parama-purusha. Let the Prakruti play its game. You emulate God's
example and be a silent witness to all that happens.
Loot at the sky above.
You can see clouds or even dust if there is a heavy storm. But sky is
not touched by these entities. You may throw up anything, mountains if
you can. But they will not touch the sky. The millions of stars, that
you see up, do not affect the nature of that sky. You are like the sky.
Everything that happens in the body and by the body does not touch you,
does not affect you. It is only when you repeatedly insist "I am
the doer", you get involved. This is the false ego. This is the
power of Prakruti. It is lower Prakruti called Apara. You, in the
Prakruti, stand at a higher place, called Para. Both of you come from
God, who is also near you in the body which has become your prison.
In the last two verses
nos. 33 and 34 Krishna says, "O' Arjuna, as the sun illuminates
this universe, so does the Purusha illuminates Prakruti in living
bodies. Those who see with Dnyana the difference between the Kshetra
(the body) and the Kshetradnya (the knower of the body) and can also
understand the process of liberation from Karmic bondage, attain
Thus ends the 13th
We have seen so far
that God is something nobody can ever comprehend, or see. He manifests
Himself first as His Prakruti. In other words, the unmanifested energy
comes to form. Ffrom subtle to gross forms it transforms itself as five
great elements. (From Aakash the most subtle to the earth, which is the
most gross form). In gross state all other forms come into existence.
These elements along with mind, intellect, ego which are the most
subtle, even more subtle than Aaksh, form various gross and subtle
bodies in combination. Other entities of Prakruti like desire etc. and
the three gunas make up the rest. Thus His lower Prakruti does the work
of creation. He then comes to reside in each being as Purusha. In that
state, God sets the ball in motion, He starts the game and stays back.
Purusha Prakruti combination takes over. This is true for the universe
as well as for each individual.
So far as we are
concerned, we are also a combination of Purusha (Atma) and Prakruti
(Physical and subtle bodies). To make a distinction between the two
(Universe and Individual) our body is called Kshetra. It includes all
the gross and subtle elements plus those other entities and gunas which
cause actions. The Purusha in the body is called Kshetradnya. He appears
different from God who is called Parama-purusha (great Purusha) because
whereas God is free, the Purusha is not.
All our efforts in the
spiritual path must be made with this understanding that "I am not
the body, not the mind, not the intellect, not even the ego. I have
nothing to do with this lower
Prakruti (Apara Prakruti). I am superior and different in nature. I am
the life force. This "Apara" lives because of me. It does
everything on its own. I am not a party to it. I am not the doer. My
ties are with the great one. I must know Him. But before that, I must
get myself out of this bondage. Because, that prevents me from going to