CHAPTER 13

 Prakruti-Purusha Nirdesha Yoga or Kshetra-Kshetradnya Yoga 

            Prakruti means God's active energy. Purusha means God. Nirdesha means description. In this chapter comprising of 34 verses, we learn the relationship between God and His Prakruti. We are familiar with the terms God and Prakruti. Krishna has talked about two other terms here, Kshetra and Kshetradnya. Kshetra means field. Kurukshetra was a field of Kurus. It became a battle field. One who knows the field is called Kshetradnya. In the first verse of this chapter Krishna says, "This body is called Kshetra and one who knows it, is called Kshetradnya."

            Now we have two sets of terms, viz., Prakruti and Purusha, Kshetra and Kshetradnya. Prakruti is God's creation. Purusha is God who knows the creation. Kshetra is your own body and Kshetradnya is one who knows everything about it. Purusha is masculine, Prakruti is feminine. Among human beings also, the masculine gender man is known as Purusha and the feminine gender woman is called Prakruti. Both together are responsible for procreation.

            In a field, we cultivate vegetables, rice, corn etc. One who owns and knows the field is a farmer. He may have many fields and he may engage different tillers to work in the field. In this body of ours, there is a tiller who remains in it till the time that this body is worth tilling. Once it becomes useless he leaves. He goes to another body with all his acquired skill.

            In verse no. 2 we are told, The khestradnya in each field i.e. the tiller in each body is God Himself; and the knowledge of the body and Him is called Dnyan. Senses form parts of the body. Through them we get knowledge of the world but how to get to know them as well as mind, intellect and ego. They all go to form the body. Then there is the tiller or God inside. How to know Him? One who knows them all is a Dnyani. God, as we know now, is  unimaginably great. He is one. So how can He be the Kshetradnya in each living being? We know answer to this question also. God's own tiny called replica Atma lives in the body. We could say that this Atma (who in realy is God) is the tiller and God, who has in his command all bodies, is the farmer.

Kshetra and Kshetradnya

            Now we have to try and understand the Kshetra as well as the Kshetradnya. Many sages have talked in detail with full logical assumptions about these two entities. Vedas also give detailed account of them. In verses no. 5 and 6 Krishna tells us, "The five great elements, ego, intellect, the unmanifested, eleven Indriyas (10 senses and 1 mind) and the five types of sense objects together from the Kshetra. In this Kshetra there are other subtle entities such as Vasana, hatred, happiness, distress, life symptom and conviction. All together are considered to be the field of activities and its interactions."

            We know what the five great elements are. A fraction of all of them combine to form the gross body, the visible kshetra. The eleven Indriyas are, five of knowledge (sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste), 5 of action (hands, legs, voice, anus, and genitals), and the remaining one is their Master, the mind. The five sense objects are form, sound, smell, touch and taste. Then there are the ego, intellect and the unmanifested stage of three modes of nature. These twenty-four elements together constitute the field of activity. Then we have vasanas, hatred, happiness, distress which are interactions. They interact with gross body. The living symptom is represented by consciousness. While, convictions are manifestations of subtle body - mind, intellect and ego.

            The body is subject to changes. Since the time it is born, till it dies, it undergoes six stages. (i) birth, when the gross body comes into world, (ii) growth, when it starts growing in size and form externally and internally, (iii) stationery state, when there is no more growth, (iv) production, when it produces by-products, (v) decaying, when it starts downward march wherein body functions become weaker and weaker, degeneration of tissues occurs, and last is (vi) death when everything is over.

            If Brahmadev was to create bodies and leave them in the universe, they would certainly undergo the six changes above but they would not be reborn. The bodies would not do anything. Even, in order for these changes to take place, some incentive and action is necessary. This is provided by Vasana which constantly produces desires. They are activated by the senses which are stimulated by their respective objects. All senses have a chief, the mind which interacts with desires and sense objects. Intellect gets in touch with the consciousness and in order that the desire remains active, the three gunas which are initially in unmanifested stage, take action. Living beings get to move. Whether a body is running, or sitting quietly in a chair, or lying down on a bed, the subtle elements remain active. Action takes place. Karma is performed. Each Karma, together with its basic desire and its mode of operation, is permanently etched on mind's big screen. Laws of Karma do the evaluation and Prakruti gets ready to send that being back in the cycle of birth and death.

            Kshetra is, thus, not only the gross body as we see. The physical body has no value. It is made up of dust, water, heat, wind and space. It is like a house. It has no meaning unless it is decorated and somebody is there to live in it and look after. So the subtle elements do the decoration and Atma resides. It is unfortunate that we give most of our attention to this house but pay very little attention to the mind, intellect and ego. We never seem to give a serious  thought to the six changes this body is subjected to. Let us take an arbitrary example. If we consider the average life of a human being say 80 years, then its peak point would be somewhere between 40 and 50. After that it would start downward journey. Its strength would go on diminishing and after 60 it would start degenerating. Of course, this is only an example. Climate, food, surrounding atmosphere do affect these factors yet the fact remains that one day the body will have to go. The mind will remain and the new body acquired will depend upon what is in the mind. It will have all your Karma, all the unfulfilled desires, unburnt vasanas, and other subtle entities. They will be the deciding factor in the allotment of another body to you. So why not do something about your mind now, before it is too late?

            Remove all hatred and ill feelings. Let the mind be healthy, free of all diseases and let there be fewer vasanas and no unfulfilled desires. Try and put every right desire into action, complete it and let it out of your system. Try from now so that when the time comes to leave this world, your mind is as much light as possible. If it is heavy it will affect you very much. This is the reason you must know your Kshetra completely. You must know what is going on in it. I would give my sincere advice to those young beautiful damsels, who care so much for their bodies, not to overlook these facts. Do take care of your face, arms, legs etc. to look more attractive, charming and beautiful but let this beauty also reflect in the Kshetra. Let it be seen right in its innermost part. This is in your own interest. Your enemy in this regard is jealousy, envy, wrong desires, hatred and dislikes. Think about that.

            All of us must realize that, even though we are far away from selfrealization, and we are conscious of our body for the better part of life, we are not physical body only. The Kshetra is much bigger. A farmer's field without any crop is no good. If he cultivates vegetables and other crops, it will look nice. On the contrary, if he leaves it unattended, it will gather rubbish and even passing animals would urinate and shit there. Do you want this to happen in your Kshetra? Of course not. Think about it and take action. You must know your Kshetra thoroughly. God has said you must have knowledge of both the Kshetra and the Kshetradnya.

            Besides the subtle entities mentioned above, there are others. Knowing and practising them in daily life amounts to living to be a Dnyani. These are humility, absence of pride, non violence, tolerance, simplicity, serving your teacher, purity, stability, self control, disinterest in sense pleasures, eviction of ego; perception of the evils of birth, death, old age, disease and distress; detachment from association with wife, children, home etc. always equipoised mind in good and bad circumstances; undiluted devotion to God; love for living in a secluded place in solitude; disinterest in living with the masses, constancy in spiritual studies and practice; zeal for philosophical knowledge - all these amount to be attributes of Dnyana. Apart from this, whatever remains in Adnyana (Ignorance).

            Once you know your Kshetra (body) and become aware of the importance to keep it beautiful from outside as well as inside, you must pay attention to know who this Kshetradnya is. In day to day life we are subjected to a variety of emotions, all springing mainly from various desires. When you succumb to your desires, your way to know Kshetradnya is blocked. So you have to cultivate and practise the virtues described above. It will not be easy but what else is easy in life? Is happiness easily found? Is peace of mind easy to obtain?  Is it easy to get what you want in life? Everything seems to be so difficult. The irony is that, in spite of successfully fighting out the difficulties, you do not get happiness, nor peace and the joy is lost. This is the beaten path. Why not take a walk on the other path which is always open to you. It is not crowded. At least make a start and walk a few paces. Stay there for a while and see for yourself how you feel.

            To make a start, be humble. Avoid temptation to show off, or blow your own trumpet. Stop craving attention. If you are at a party, do enjoy mixing with others but with a change. Make others talk and you listen, observing silence. Take interest in others instead of trying to draw their attention to you. Finally, when you are through with the party, drop the party from your mind. I think, this action should be enough to begin with. If you feel good, better than being on the beaten path, continue. In course of time you will know everything there is to know, to become a Dnyani. The first path leads you into a mire of ignorance where there is nothing but darkness and sorrow. On this path there is always light and joy. This is Dnyana.

The knowable

            Now we have to understand, what is knowable. The difficulty here is that this knowable cannot be known by the senses. Let us take an example in material life. You are a pop singer. You do have good and sound knowledge of this type of music. There is a concert of Michael Jackson in town. You have got a ticket. You attend the show and are thrilled to listen to him. You have seen him in action, heard him in person, observed his style, mannerisms and acquired knowledge. Now you want to know what is it that makes him number one in the world. You can imitate his style, mannerisms, accent and everything else still you know you will be nowhere near him. There is something in him, something about him which makes him different. You can know it only when you become Michael Jackson.

            In the same way, to know the knowable you have to become the knowable yourself. What is this knowable? This is that, which, when known, liberates you from Karmic bondage. It has no beginning, no end. It is the greatest and superior to all. It is said to be real as well as unreal (because human knowledge of anything is conditioned by the capacity of the senses and the mind). Yet it is there and will be there always. This is called Brahma. It pervades the field. Even though each individual Atma looks after the body, Brahma is the real Master. All Atmas owe allegiance to Brahma. We have to understand first that this knowable, which is unknowable to the body and mind, is everywhere. This is God, so God is within us. If that is so, how can we be callous and negligent in internal parts of our field. We must do a thorough cleaning of them. You may spend two hours and have a good bath with perfumed soap and shampoos but do you spend even two minutes to clean yourself from inside? That Brahma or God is there all the time. We must make an attempt to know Him.

            We have seen before, how God appeared to Arjuna in Universal form. This is what is knowable. He has hands and legs everywhere. His eyes, heads, ears are everywhere. In this way He exists and pervades everything. It is only because He, the knowable, is unknowable to the subtle parts of body that we do not see Him or feel Him. Otherwise, at this very moment, he is next to you, on your sofa or chair on which you are sitting. His body touches yours. He is aware of your existence but you don't feel Him. He hears every word you speak, sees every gesture you make but you can't. He exists inside you and knows what goes on in your mind. Terrible, is it not? Can you still afford to have feelings of hatred, envy, jealousy; thoughts of treachery, cheating, dishonesty etc.?

            In reality He is unmanifested. He has no form, no organs. Yet He exists in universal form. He takes interest in His creation and so it moves on and on. We also have a lot of interest in our own life. We take many actions so that life may be easy and good for us. All our actions get rewarded. His actions do not. His creation is out of His desire to multiply and magnify in various individual forms. But He is not attached to it, whereas we are.

            The knowable is inside as well as outside of all beings. It is still, yet it moves. It is so subtle hence it is beyond the power of senses. It is too far as well as too near. Since this Brahma pervades everything, it is everywhere. The talk of it being inside and outside is actually meaningless. This distinction is caused because of endless individual small and big forms created by Prakruti in the Universe. When we talk about God being too far and too near at the same time, what we understand is His existence. How far away can you stretch your imagination? Scientists have found some new galaxies billions of light years away. This is too far. But all that exists in the universe is just a fraction of His existence and all within Him, He is even beyond that distance. How much beyond? Beyond imagination. So we know how far He is. Yet He is so near. He is very close. How much? Does He touch the body? Yes, He does, yet He is still close. In the body we have the senses beyond which there is the mind. Beyond mind is the intellect and beyond intellect is Atma. Atma is you yourself. Well, He is beyond Atma, closer than you can imagine. Because Atma is nothing else but a fraction of Him. So He is too far and at the same time too near.

Oneness of God

            He is undivided yet appears divided. He maintains all living beings yet He devours and creates them also. We have seen before that space pervades everything. It is undivided yet it appears divided. e.g. If you have five pots lined up in a row on a street, you will see some space separately inside each pot. You can see space outside them. In this way the large open space appears differently and not united. You break the pots, you see that the space that was within them and the space outside them is really one. Similarly, each individual being has God inside as well as outside in one unmanifested existence. If the entire Universe is gone, He will still remain, as He was and as He is. In the beginning there was no universe. He created it. He maintains it and ultimately, it will merge into Him. Hence it is only one God who appears to perform the three different functions.

            He is the source of light in all luminous bodies. He is beyond darkness and is unmanifested. He is Dnyana. He is the object of Dnyana and He is the goal of Dnyana. He is situated in the heart of all beings. It means the knowable is to be known by Him and knowing Him is the ultimate goal. If He is to be known, you have to be Him, or in other words your existence in a living body must cease, never to be born again. When your body disappears and you do not have bonds of the three gunas and vasanas tied around you, then you are free. In that free condition where and how will you live? You will live in Him, not separate from Him. Now you need your senses and mind to know anything. But then you will be everything.

            In old days, there were kings and their subjects. If anyone wanted anything, the highest authority to approach was the king. If you were one of the subjects and if you needed something which the king's deputies were unable to give, you went to the king. But if you were yourself to become a king then there was nothing for you to be asked for. Everything in the kingdom was yours. You just wished and your wish was granted. In the same way once you are free and you become the knowable yourself, then you are God. What would you want then? You won't have any desires like you have now.

            So we have seen what is Kshetra, Kshetradnya, Dnyana and Adnyana (ignorance). We know now what is God in greater details. Krishna has declared in verse no. 18 that His devotee who understands this thoroughly, goes to Him.

Purusha and Prakruti

            Since God is  beginningless and since He pervades the Universe with His Prakruti, the latter also is without any beginning. It was always there with Him. Only the universe with all its beings has a beginning and an end. He is no different from Prakruti. As God or as Purusha He maintains His unmanifested existence. As Prakruti, He begins His endless manifestations. He begets His vibhutis and they create and maintain the universe. Finally, when it is time to wind up everything, He in the form of destroyer vibhuti, will put an end to the world. As Prakruti He will swallow everything and finally withdraw it in Him, remaining in unmanifested existence. Once the Prakruti gets into action and Universe is created, the game starts. Gross bodies composed of the five great elements, the subtle bodies like the senses, mind, intellect, ego etc. and the sense objects which are spread throughout the universe in various forms start interacting with each other. Their action is prompted and caused by  the three gunas, and their effects like delusion, happiness and sorrow. All these are generated from Prakruti. Thus His Prakruti is said to be the cause of all all causes and effects in the material world, while He, the Purusha is the enjoyer of the effects like various sufferings and pleasures in the world.

            Even though the Purusha is a free entity and Prakruti is not free, the former is attached to the latter in manifestations. The living beings undergo the birth - death cycle because of Karma. Prakruti is responsible to give the Karma-bound Purusha one of the 8.400.000 species of animal bodies, (including human) according to each one's Karma. The Purusha is thus confined to the given body till the time comes for it to be dispensed with. In this way, the Purusha is trapped and He, being the one having capacity to feel and know, is the enjoyer or all suffering and pleasures that the Prakruti creates. Thus, there is always an interaction between these two.

            The Purusha lives with the Prakruti, when he is in bondage and enjoys what body experiences, under the influence of the three gunas which are the working tools of Prakruti. Once the Purusha is bound by Karma, He has no other choice but to go to that being which the Prakruti decides for Him. And once He is thus reborn with His Prarabdha Karma, he has no choice but to live in that body till the Karma is over. Yet in human body He has the right, the only right to do Karma. It is upto Him how to do it. He could attach himself to all that is being caused by Prakruti gunas, and thus feel that He is the door, or recognise His association with God, the unmanifested, and remain non attached to every action. In the first case He does not come out of bondage. In the second one He becomes free and in unmanifested state goes and merges with God.

Parama-Purusha

            In the body which becomes a sort of cage to the Purusha, there is yet another being superior to Him. That one is just a witness or an overseer and the one who permits this Purusha - Prakruti marriage. That one is called Parama-Purusha. He is the great one of whom the Purusha is a part. That one is unknowable by senses. Sages said about Him thus, "Thou art That". What that "That" is, nobody knows. In other words the bonded Purusha is Atma while the great overseer is Param-Atma. Devotees sometimes use two other terms for them. They call the bonded one as Jiva and the free one as Shiva. This Parama-purusha is the real master, real enjoyer. He is all in all. The Prakruti is His plaything.

            Krishna says in verse no 23, "He who understands this principle and factual status of the Purusha and the Prakruti along with its features and the interaction of them, is sure to attain liberation. Regardless of how he lives in this life, he will not be born again."

Understanding Purusha Prakruti

            In my school and collage days, I knew of two methods of learning a subject. One was to make a deep study, think, get experience and get knowledge in my own system so that it remained there permanently. The other was to byheart the lines to be able to give correct answers in the examination and thus get good marks. Anything learnt by this second method remained temporarily. It could not reach the deep quarters of the mind.

            If you adopt this second method to know what Krishna has said, that knowledge will be wiped away. It will not liberate you. But if you follow the first method and make efforts to understand Purusha, Prakruti, their interaction, the laws of Karma and bondage, the position of Panama-Purusha in all these, and succeed in turning your mind away from the influences of the three gunas and the senses, you are on the right way. No matter what you are, what you have done, how much you have sinned, you will be liberated.

            Now that you know about God and yourself, you can practise any one of the methods covered in earlier chapters to be on the correct path. Many people practise meditation. They try to turn away the senses from their objects, then try to turn the mind inwards, away from senses and concentrate on the thought of God. Their efforts are to see the Parama-purusha inside, within the body. Chapter 6 on self restrain Yoga for Karmayogis, explains this method, however, it has been mentioned there, that it is for Karma yogis who are already living in a detached way. For a common man, interested in, worldly pleasures, it is extremely difficult. Yet, with a strong determination and dedication anything can be achieved. Those who want to undertake this method should take guidance from somebody who is experienced and advanced in spiritual enlightenment. Otherwise, your efforts may go in vain.

            Some people follow Sankhyayoga or the path of Dnyana. It requires high degree of intelligence. You have to think and think deep, analysing all actions and determining what caused them, why and how they were performed, where from the desire came, why does it not die, who in the body really enjoys or suffers etc. etc. In life we are always conscious of body and mind. This is called body consciousness. It must be replaced by Atma consciousness. In your process of analysing your actions, you have to, slowly and slowly, get away from body consciousness. You start saying to yourself and realising in reality "I an not my hands, nor feet, nor eyes, nor any sense organs. I am not the mind, nor intellect, nor ego. Then who am I?" You proceed in this way and finally get to know who you really are. Not an easy path to follow. Many questions arise. You need to get them answersed by a Master.

            The third path is Karmayoga which means doing every Karma in the right way and in a detached manner. Many people follow this path. This is comparatively easy. It becomes easier still when you adopt some other means to turn your mind to God. These means are daily worship, prayers, visit to a holy place etc. When you undertake this path, you do not require high intelligence. But you must have faith. Devotion based on strong faith can turn a criminal or a sinner of the worst kind into a Yogi.

            All the above paths have been discussed before. They are mentioned here to lay emphasis on the point in verse no. 23. Follow any of these paths and get to know the Purusha, Prakruti, their interaction etc. etc. You are sure to be liberated in this very life. In this world full of people with varying degrees of understanding, grasping power and intelligence, it is also possible that there may be some people who would find it difficult to understand what is meditation and what are Yogas. If they try to listen to Masters on their discourses on such subject, they will get baffled. If they try to read, they may not understand. What should they do?

Need for a Guru

            Krishna stays in verse no. 25, that such people should have faith in a Master and do what he says. Their faith and actions taken, under the guidance of a Master will enable them to reach the goal"                                                                                                                    

            In this, we see a relationship between a Master and a disciple. There are examples galore in history that disciples who have served their Master, also have achieved their goal. It is the grace of the Master which counts. If you find it difficult to undertake any of the paths mentioned before, you can start worshipping God. Hold an ardent desire to be near Him. He will direct you to the proper Master. Then onwards, obey what the Master (Guru) says with a strong faith in him. But a point of caution to be noted. Do not go in search of a Guru. You may be disillusioned. There are many Gurus ready to take disciples in their camp. Do not crave for a Mantra. You can simply chant the name of God as you like it. Read His stories, participate in bhajans and sing His hymns. One day you will surely meet your Master.

            All the beings in the world, whether moving or non moving are born out of Prakruti and Purusha. It is a simple logic. All living beings are born in embryo state when the male and female bodies come together. Purusha is male and Prakruti is female. Their combination gives rise to the Universe and all beings in the universe are born out of them. And while the living being has a limited physical existence in the given form on earth, the death occurs of not the whole being. That part of Prakruti which is responsible for the gross body, dies. This part is the combination of five gross elements. The other part which is the subtle one, stays behind with the Purusha who does not die at all. He who realises this, realises Him.

Influence of Prakruti through Gunas

            If you can bring yourself up to see the presence of God in every living being, it is not likely that you will let yourself be degraded in any way. Then you automatically are on the path to reach higher goal. In all our reactions to outward stimuli, the major party is ego, which is supported by desire and influenced by the respective guna, dominant at that time.

            You are sitting in your living room. You like music so you have your music system on, and you are enjoying it. After a while you hear some voices outside your house. You get up and look out. You observe that four young boys are standing on the pavement, just outside the gate and arguing. You leave them alone and return to your seat. Now they are talking louder than before. You are disturbed. Your desire to listen quietly, the music that is on, is obstructed. Your ego is stirred. It says, "Who are these boys? Why should they stand in front of my house and talk so loudly? They could go elsewhere". The "Raja" guna is dominant and "Tama" is very close to it. You are compelled to take some action. You get up, come out near the gate and blurt out, "Listen boys, if you want to shout, go somewhere else. But do not stand in front of my house. Now go, get lost."

            "Raja" and "Tama" have done their job, ego is satisfied. But your "Tama" guna is passed on to the minds of those boys through the sense of hearing. One of them has his "Tama" guna, riding high at that time. It gets stronger. His ego tells him "who is this man to talk to you in this manner? Give him back." He retorts, "Is this your father's property? We are not inside the gate. We are standing on the pavement now old man, you get lost".

            You get offended. There may be heated arguments but ultimately you return and consume lot of your energy in nursing anger. You can't enjoy the music. All this happens because of your ego, desire and the Gunas. Suppose, you Sattwa guna was dominant at that time , you will speak to them differently. May be like this: "Hallo boys. Why are you standing on the pavement and talking? Come in side. I will get you chairs. You will be more comfortable in the courtyard of my premises. Its okay, come on." The force and power of your Sattwa guna will quieten the "Tama" in the other man, and he is very likely to say, "Thank you, Sir, we are just leaving. Thanks." They will walk away.

            The point is that if you  had seen the presence of God in those boys, you would not have been led by the Prakruti. Your words would portray superiority and greatness of your mind. Without your awareness you go one step ahead in your path of self realisation. It must be understood that all actions, whether physical, mental, intellectual or else, are caused by Prakruti. He who understands this and considers himself a silent witness but not an active party to the Karma, knows what is real and what is unreal. Soul or Atma i.e. You yourself, a part of God do nothing. It is your involvement and slavery to your own Prakruti which makes you think that you are the doer.

            When you are able to realise that all living beings are God's own manifestations in the form of Purusha and Prakruti combination; and you are one of them, you attitude towards others changes. You begin to realise that everything that you see, hear, smell, touch and taste is just God's expanded Prakruti. When this realisation is dawned, you marvel at His creation, bow to Him in silence and come to know the insignificance of your own existence. Yet you feel happy that you are part of Him and you train yourself to participate in His game joyfully, without letting any events affect you. You are on your way to God realisation.

Purusha and Parama-Purusha

            The Parama-purusha is a permanent entity. He has no beginning. Those, who realise this and are able to comprehend His omnipresence, are fortunate. See Him as not affected by the three gunas. You, the Atma get affected because you are combined with Prakruti and are under the influence of its power. But Paramatma is aloof from all this. He is in your body as a witness only. He does not get entangled by the Karma, nor does he do anything. It is you, the Purusha, who must realise this and remember your ties with the Parama-purusha. But you are already tied with Prakruti. That is your own doing. Your state of misery and bondage is caused by you and nobody else. If you want to get out of it and enjoy real happiness turn to the Parama-purusha. Let the Prakruti play its game. You emulate God's example and be a silent witness to all that happens.

            Loot at the sky above. You can see clouds or even dust if there is a heavy storm. But sky is not touched by these entities. You may throw up anything, mountains if you can. But they will not touch the sky. The millions of stars, that you see up, do not affect the nature of that sky. You are like the sky. Everything that happens in the body and by the body does not touch you, does not affect you. It is only when you repeatedly insist "I am the doer", you get involved. This is the false ego. This is the power of Prakruti. It is lower Prakruti called Apara. You, in the Prakruti, stand at a higher place, called Para. Both of you come from God, who is also near you in the body which has become your prison.

            In the last two verses nos. 33 and 34 Krishna says, "O' Arjuna, as the sun illuminates this universe, so does the Purusha illuminates Prakruti in living bodies. Those who see with Dnyana the difference between the Kshetra (the body) and the Kshetradnya (the knower of the body) and can also understand the process of liberation from Karmic bondage, attain God."

            Thus ends the 13th chapter.

Summary

            We have seen so far that God is something nobody can ever comprehend, or see. He manifests Himself first as His Prakruti. In other words, the unmanifested energy comes to form. Ffrom subtle to gross forms it transforms itself as five great elements. (From Aakash the most subtle to the earth, which is the most gross form). In gross state all other forms come into existence. These elements along with mind, intellect, ego which are the most subtle, even more subtle than Aaksh, form various gross and subtle bodies in combination. Other entities of Prakruti like desire etc. and the three gunas make up the rest. Thus His lower Prakruti does the work of creation. He then comes to reside in each being as Purusha. In that state, God sets the ball in motion, He starts the game and stays back. Purusha Prakruti combination takes over. This is true for the universe as well as for each individual.

            So far as we are concerned, we are also a combination of Purusha (Atma) and Prakruti (Physical and subtle bodies). To make a distinction between the two (Universe and Individual) our body is called Kshetra. It includes all the gross and subtle elements plus those other entities and gunas which cause actions. The Purusha in the body is called Kshetradnya. He appears different from God who is called Parama-purusha (great Purusha) because whereas God is free, the Purusha is not.

            All our efforts in the spiritual path must be made with this understanding that "I am not the body, not the mind, not the intellect, not even the ego. I have nothing to do with this  lower Prakruti (Apara Prakruti). I am superior and different in nature. I am the life force. This "Apara" lives because of me. It does everything on its own. I am not a party to it. I am not the doer. My ties are with the great one. I must know Him. But before that, I must get myself out of this bondage. Because, that prevents me from going to Him.

            Once this realization is dawned and the desire to be free becomes dominant, your progress is rapid. This chapter strengthens our conviction that we are different from body. The body consciousness, with which we live all the time, gets a jolt. Now it is upto us to get rid of it and replace it with Atma consciousness.

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R.P.L. Kornet®
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